1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Kentiopsis Brongn.
      1. Kentiopsis pyriformis Pintaud & Hodel

        This species is accepted, and its native range is SE. New Caledonia.

    [PW]
    Biology
    Ecology. A more or less gregarious, subcanopy to canopy species, Kentiopsis pyriformis is found in lowland rain forest on ultramafic rocks, both on oxydic colluvium on flat land and steep, rocky, eroded slopes of peridotitic mountains and hills. The largest and more gregarious population at the Kuebini River near Goro grows with other palms including Actinokentia diaaricata,, Basselinia pancheri, Clinosperma bracteale, and Cyphokentia macrostachya. The population near Port Boisé is much smaller and the individuals more scattered. Associated palms there include A. divaricata, B. gracilis, B. pancheri, Chambeyronia nmacrocarpa. Phenology. Flowers usually occur from November through February with a l5-day delay between anthesis of staminate and pistitlate flowers in the same triad; fruits mature from April through June.
    Conservation
    Status is critically endangered (proposed). Occupying less Ihan 2 ha, the main population of K. pyriformis at the Kuebini River is unprotected and consists of less than a hundred trunked individuals. Fire severely affected the entire population about 1980, destroying nearly all saplings and damaging trunks of many mature individuals. Despite an abundant and regular production of readily germinating seeds, regeneration remains extremely low due to the difficulty of seedling establishment in an unusually steep, rocky, unstable habitat. In March 1996, Cyclone Beti caused the fall of at least 25% of the adults, nearly all of them more windprone since the earlier fire destroyed protective vegetation and damaged trunks. In one group of eight adults, the cyclone felled seven of them. Farther north along the coast at Touaourou, the forest is restricted to a narrow fringe inland from the road and next to the mountains. Here, burning, clearing for gardens and homes, and recent road improvements and rural electrification have all taken a toll on the forest. Also, native inhabitants probably harvested the palms, perhaps for the edible palm heart or cabbage and/or construction, since not one adult tree has been observed there. Some other small groups composed of a few adults and juveniles occur south of Goro where they are affected by landslides and stream erosion. The Port Boisé population is known from ca. 20 adult trees, less than a hundred juveniles with trunks, and numerous saplings, which locally dominate the understory, and is partly, although marginally, included in a botanical reserve. Felling of trees for construction and edible palm heart has decimated this population. Jean-Marie Veillon (personal communication) reports that as a forestry officer in the 1970s, he cited people for illegal cutting of palms in the Botanical Reserve.
    General Description
    Subcanopy to emergent palm. Trunk 10-18 m tall, 10-22 cm dbh, brown becoming gray, sometimes enlarged or bulging at the base, adventitious roots visible. Leaves 7-12, ascending to spreading, moderately recurved or nearly straight; leaf sheath 70-130 cm long, coppercolored or purplish red, with a thin cover of glaucous- white wax and minutely puncticulate with tiny brown lacerate scales abaxially, splitting in the distal 1/4-1/3 opposite petiole and there bearing small auricles 1 cm long or terminatirrg on petiole with two wings l0 cm long; petiole 20-45 cm long (some times to 2.6 m long in trunkless juveniles), glabrescent, green or reddish to purplish; rachis 2.5-3 m long, petiole and rachis variously covered initially by thin feltlike indument of brown-centered, white-margined scales; pinnae 40-58 on each side, median ones 110-130 X 5-8 cm, proximal two pairs continuing into lorae, all acute, coriaceouso one-ribbed, ascending and held in open V or borne in one plane and flat to slightly pendulouso green and glossy adaxially, midrib and sometimes secondary ribs bearing abaxially membranous, medifixed ramenta in groups of 2-20. Inflorescences 1-2, 60-100 cm wide, spreading, branched to four orders; peduncle 6-10 cm long; prophyll 40-50 X 20 cm, splitting into two halves; first peduncular bract 50-60 X 15-18 cm, beaked, slightly exceeding the prophyll, both bracts pale green or dark purple, glabrescent to variously tomentose abaxially; rachis 30-40 cm long with 10 main branches 2-10 cm long, 1-4 cm wide, sharply angled, dorsiventrally flattened, brownish green to bright purple; peduncle and rachis with thin indument of browncentered, white-margined minute scales; bracts subtending branches small, triangular-obtuse to acuminate and finally reduced to a ridge; rachillae 100-400, slender, 20-30 cm long, 0.5 cm diameter, folded and mucilaginous in inflorescence bud, rounded, glabrescent, very pale green to cream-colored in bud, becoming brown or dark purple. Flowers in horizontal triads'rof a central pistillate flower flanked by two medianlateral earlier-opening staminate flowers; triads in proximal 2/3 and sometimes nearly to apex of rachillae, paired staminate flowers only distally, or sometimes paired staminate flowers on unisexual rachillae; bracts subtending triads a thin, rounded, sharp-edged lip to 1 mm high; staminate flowers in bud 6 x 3.5-4 mm, glossy brown, almost symmetrical; calyx 2.5 mm high and 3.5 mm in diameter, cupular, sepals keel-like, truncate or broadly rounded apically; petals ovate, boat-shaped, spreading at anthesis, adnate to the receptacle basally and with a swollen pulvinus just above, pinkish adaxially; stamens 11-20, just exceeding petals, filaments free or nearly so, 2.5 mm long, slender, slightly fluted, white, straight, and not attenuate apically, anthers 2-2.5 mm long, slender, dorsifixed 1/3 up from base, connective white, not tanniniferous; pistillode 1-1.5 mm high, much shorter than filaments and petals, conical to columnar and fluted or rarely spindle-shaped; outer bracteole surrounding pistillate flower l-2.5 mm hign, sepal-like or not, inner bracteole 2.75 mm high, always sepal-like, sometimes forming a tube with the outer bracteole; pistillate flowers 5-6 X 3-4.5 mm, rhomboid and laterally compressed or globose-ovoid; calyx 4-4.5 X 4-4.5 mm, cupularo sepals strongly bowl-like to cupshaped; petals bowl-like to cup-shaped, scarcely exceeding or much exceeding sepals; staminodes 3, 0.5-0.9 mm high, toothlike, thin, membranous; gynoecium 4-5.5 X 2.5-3 mm, stigmatic lobes recurved, angled, laying between corolla lobes or shorto erect; ovule laterally attached or pendulous. Fruits to 17 X 7 mm, oblong, purplish pink, fruiting perianth 6 X B mm, stigmatic residue subapical; mesocarp with abundant, mostly elongate, but at times wandering or reticulate fibers not adherent to endocarp, tannin cells in a thick layer between fibers and endocarp; endocarp whitish, fragile. Seeds 10-12 X 5-6 mm, pyriform, rarely -t ellipsoid, hilum elongate, lateralo raphe branches mostly longitudinal, anastomosing little, slightly embedded. Bifid leaves 5-6 before first pinnate leaf; trunkless juvenile individuals with distichously arranged leaves, becoming spirally arranged with age, petioles glabrous, glossy reddish to dark purple; saxophone growth present.
    Distribution
    Kentiopsis pyriformis ranges from along the east coast of New Caledonia south of Yaté, where it occurs in a fringe of forest 20 km long and 100-500 m wide from Touaourou to Goro villages at 5-100 m elevation, inland to the southwest about 11.5 air kilometers distant in remnant patches of forest at about 200 m elevation, at the southern end of Monts Nengone, near Port Boisé. The main population is at Goro on a steep, unstable, rocky slope above the mouth of Kuebini River.
    Diagnostic
    Kentiopsis oliviformi (Brongn.& Gris) Brongn. affinis sed foliorum vaginis glabrescentibus ceraceis cupreis vel vinosis, inflorescentiis effusis ramis principalibus angulatis, floribus masculis symmetricalibus, staminibus ll-20 differt.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    New Caledonia

    Kentiopsis pyriformis Pintaud & Hodel appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 4, 1996 Pintaud, J.-C. [348], New Caledonia K000520102
    Jan 4, 1996 Pintaud, J.-C. [303], New Caledonia K000520107 isotype
    Jan 4, 1996 Pintaud, J.-C. [310], New Caledonia K000520103
    Dec 6, 1995 Pintaud, J.-C. [304], New Caledonia K000520104
    May 26, 1995 Pintaud, J.-C. [202], New Caledonia K000520105
    Jan 10, 1995 Pintaud, J.-C. [306], New Caledonia K000520106

    First published in Principes 42: 49 (1998)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • J.-C. Pintaud & D. Hodel, A Revision of Kentiopsis, a Genus Endemic to New Caledonia. 1998

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0