1. Family: Cactaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Opuntia Mill.
      1. Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders, as an ornamental plant and for food.

    [FTEA]

    Cactaceae, R. Hunt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

    Habit
    Shrubby or arborescent, up to 4(–5) m. tall, often with a cylindrical trunk.
    Spines
    Joints elliptic to narrowly obovate, flattened, often 30–40 cm. long, 15–20 cm. broad, 1–1.5 cm. thick, greyish-green; glochids yellow, deciduous; spines usually none, sometimes 1 or more, up to 1.5 cm. long, bristle-like.
    Leaves
    Leaves subulate, 3–4 mm. long, early deciduous.
    Flowers
    Flowers 5–8 cm. in diameter; perianth spreading, yellow or orange, longer than the style and stamens.
    Ovary
    Ovary cylindrical, 3.5–5 cm. long, with many areoles, the upper bearing bristles up to 1.5 cm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit ellipsoidal or obovoid, 5–9 cm. long, 3–6 cm. in diameter, variable in colour, with edible pulp.
    Habitat
    Roadsides and by rivers; grasslands on pumice dust
    Distribution
    K3 K6 presumably native to America but not known wild therewidely cultivated and naturalized around the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, in Africa and Australia. Cultivated in Niarobi (Dec. 1948, Bally 6558 in C.M. 13559!) and reported as very common and spreading rapidly around Naivasha (Lucas 278)
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1300 - 2600 m.; Andes.
    Habit
    Arbusto, arbolito
    [UPB]

    The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

    Ecology
    Alt. 1300 - 2600 m.
    Distribution
    Cultivated in Colombia.
    Habit
    Shrub.
    [UPB]
    Ornamentals
    Live plant (in situ) - Ornamental (Granados-Tochoy et al. 2007).
    Food
    Infructescences - Edible fruit (Granados-Tochoy et al. 2007).
    Materials
    Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
    Unspecified Materials Chemicals
    Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
    Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
    Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Lebanon-Syria, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest

    Introduced into:

    Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Baleares, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Colombia, Corse, Cuba, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, France, Free State, Galápagos, Gambia, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Italy, Kenya, Korea, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Madeira, Morocco, New Mexico, Northern Provinces, Palestine, Paraguay, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Spain, St.Helena, Sudan, Trinidad-Tobago, Turkey, Western Sahara, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaïre

    Common Names

    Spanish
    Penca, higo chumbo, chumbera, nopal, tuna.

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    14481.000
    Spain K000100469
    K000100963
    Malta K000100466
    Italy K000100465
    Algeria K000100482
    De Winter [0], South Africa K000100555
    Kitching [0], USA K000100631
    Burkill [27] K000275302
    Bourgeau [669], Spain K000100467
    Schweinfurth [1693], Eritrea K000100515
    Schlieben [12506] K000100965
    Schlieben [12520] K000100966
    Schlieben [12510] K000100967
    Schlieben [12507] K000100968
    Schlieben [12512] K000100969
    Schlieben [12514] K000100970
    Schlieben [12502] K000100971
    Schlieben [12508] K000100972
    Schlieben [12505] K000100973
    Schlieben [12521] K000100974
    Schlieben [12503] K000100975
    Schlieben [12511] K000100976
    Schlieben [12516] K000100977
    Schlieben [12509] K000100978
    Schlieben [12501] K000100979
    Schlieben [12518] K000100980
    Schlieben [12519] K000100981
    Schlieben [12513] K000100982
    Schlieben [12515] K000100983
    Phipps [2266], Zimbabwe K000100535
    Lucas [278], Kenya K000100520
    Keith [773], Libya K000100964
    Madsen [50391], Ecuador K000275257
    Madsen [50053], Ecuador K000275251
    Madsen [50053], Ecuador K000275252
    Madsen et al [36827], Ecuador K000275253
    Madsen et al [36804], Ecuador K000275255
    Madsen et al [36804], Ecuador K000275256
    Madsen et al [36827], Ecuador K000275254
    Howard [18578], Puerto Rico K000100694
    Vasey [0], USA K000100630
    Ryding [1247], Eritrea K000100516
    Glover et al [2375], Kenya K000100519
    Mavi [1250], Zimbabwe K000100536
    Simpson, D. N. [1503], Egypt K000100478
    Simpson, D. N. [4835], Egypt K000100480
    Gandoger [383], Spain K000100468
    Rodin [9029], South Africa K000100556
    Araque [0], Argentina K000100897
    Arcangeli [0], Italy K000100464
    Wood, I. J.R. [1580], Yemen K000100479
    Gillies [0], Argentina Opuntia cordobensis K000100895
    Gillies [0], Argentina Opuntia cordobensis K000100896
    Shafer [109], Argentina Opuntia cordobensis K000100899
    Shafer [21], Argentina Opuntia cordobensis K000100900
    Shafer [77], Argentina Opuntia cordobensis K000100898
    Mexico Opuntia megacantha K000062548
    Mexico Opuntia megacantha K000062549
    Hunt, D. Opuntia paraguayensis 49733.000
    Pedersen [2846], Argentina Opuntia paraguayensis K000100913

    First published in Gard. Dict. ed. 8: n.º 2 (1768)

    Accepted by

    • Dufour-Dror, J.M. & Fragman-Sapir, O. in Dufour-Dror, J.M. (2019). Alien Plant Species in Natural & Disturbed Areas in Israel Alien Invasive Plants in Israel, ed. 2: 1-246. Dan Perry Pub., Nature & Parks Authority, Israel Ministry of Environmental Protection.
    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Vázquez Pardo, F.M. & García Alonso, D. (2017). Aproximación al conocimiento del grupo Opuntia Mill. (s.l.) (Cactaceae) en Extremadura (España) Folia Botanica Extremadurensis 11: 51-75.
    • Vangjeli, J. (2017). Flora Albania Atlas 1: 1-933. Koeltz Botanical Books.
    • Franck, A.R., Anderson, L.C., Burkhalter, J.R. & Dickman, S. (2016). Additions to the flora of Florida, U.S.A. (2010-2015) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 175-190.
    • Baliousis, E. (2014). Recent data from the flora of the island of Limnos (NE Aegean, Greece): new alien invasive species affecting the agricultural economy of the island Edinburgh Journal of Botany 71: 275-285.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, H. (2014). Illustrated Flora of Lebanon, ed. 2: 1-610. CNRS Publication.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Mottram, R. (2013). Linnaean cactus legacy The Cactician 3: 1-83.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Greuter, W. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2010). Med-Checklist Notulae, 29 Willdenowia 40: 189-204.
    • Zervous, S., Raus, T. & Yannitsaros, A. (2009). Additons to the flora of the island of Kalimnos (SE Aegean, Greece) Willdenowia 39: 165-177.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Leuenberger, B.E. (1991). Interpretation and typification of Cactus ficus-indica L. and Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller (Cactaceae) Taxon 40: 621-627.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1977). Flora of Cyprus 1: 1-832. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    • Kew's Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
    • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
    • Granados-Tochoy, J. C., Lastra-Romero, C. A., Correa-Casas, M., & Monsalve, D. (2007). Estudio florístico de la agrobiodiversidad del municipio de Garagoa (Valle de Tenza, Boyacá, Colombia). Instituto Alexander von Humboldt, Bogotá.
    • Toscano-González, J. Y. (2006). Uso tradicional de plantas medicinales en la vereda San Isidro, municipio de San Jose de Pare-Boyacá: Un estudio preliminar usando técnicas cuantitativas. Acta Biologica Colombiana, 11(2), 137-146.
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Dufour-Dror, J.M. & Fragman-Sapir, O. in Dufour-Dror, J.M. (2019). Alien Plant Species in Natural & Disturbed Areas in Israel Alien Invasive Plants in Israel, ed. 2: 1-246. Dan Perry Pub., Nature & Parks Authority, Israel Ministry of Environmental Protection.
    • Balslav, H. & Chantaranothai, P. (2018). Flora of Thailand 4(3.1): 221-371. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Verloove, F. & al. (2017). New records of naturalised and invasive cacti (Cactaceae) from Gran Canaria and Tenerife, Canary islands, Spain Bradleya. Yearbook of the British Cactus and Succulent Society 35: 58-79.
    • Vangjeli, J. (2017). Flora Albania Atlas 1: 1-933. Koeltz Botanical Books.
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Franck, A.R., Anderson, L.C., Burkhalter, J.R. & Dickman, S. (2016). Additions to the flora of Florida, U.S.A. (2010-2015) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 175-190.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, H. (2014). Illustrated Flora of Lebanon, ed. 2: 1-610. CNRS Publication.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Greuter, W. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2010). Med-Checklist Notulae, 29 Willdenowia 40: 189-204.
    • Zervous, S., Raus, T. & Yannitsaros, A. (2009). Additons to the flora of the island of Kalimnos (SE Aegean, Greece) Willdenowia 39: 165-177.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. II. Leguminosae à Compositae Candollea 47: 397-481.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1977). Flora of Cyprus 1: 1-832. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Britton & Rose, The Cactaceae 1: 177 (1919). Based on a plant in Leiden Botanic Garden, origin unknown.
    • Mill., Gard. Dict., ed. 8 (1768).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/