1. Family: Asteraceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Xanthium L.
      1. Xanthium strumarium L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is N. America, Peru to Brazil and S. South America.

    [FTEA]

    Compositae, H. Beentje, C. Jeffrey & D.J.N. Hind. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

    Habit
    Coarse annual herb to 1.5 m high; stems scabridulous, often reddish.
    Leaves
    Leaves broadly deltate or broadly ovate, simple or 3–5-lobed, 5–12 cm long, 4–18 cm wide, base cordate as well as broadly cuneate, margins coarsely crenate, apex acute or obtuse, scabrid on both surfaces; 3-veined from base; petiole to 12 cm long.
    Male
    Male capitula terminal on short axillary branches; involucre ± 3 mm long; corolla ± 2.5 mm long.
    Inflorescences
    Female capitula to 4 mm long, with connate involucre. Male capitula terminal on short axillary branches; involucre ± 3 mm long; corolla ± 2.5 mm long.
    Female
    Female capitula to 4 mm long, with connate involucre.
    Fruits
    Fruit ellipsoid, 1.5–2.3 cm long, covered in hooked spines 3–4 mm long, apex acute.
    Figures
    Fig. 178 (page 818).
    Habitat
    uderal sites; 20–1650 m
    Distribution
    probably originally from North Americanow a global weed K4 K5 T2 T5
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 500 - 1600 m.; Andes.
    Habit
    Hierba, arbusto
    Conservation
    No Evaluada

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, California, Chile Central, Chile North, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Uruguay, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Botswana, Brazil North, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Chita, Colombia, Corse, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Egypt, France, Free State, Germany, Greece, Haiti, Hungary, India, Italy, Jamaica, Khabarovsk, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Sicilia, Sinai, South European Russi, Spain, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Venezuela, West Siberia, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Donkey burr

    Xanthium strumarium L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 1, 2012 Gardner, G. [524], Brazil K000895500
    Sep 1, 2012 Gardner, G. [524], Brazil K000895499
    Jul 1, 2012 Burchell [4911], Brazil K000955673
    Jul 1, 2012 Burchell [2741], Brazil K000955675
    Graham, R.A. [1423 [Dorny], United Kingdom K001045250
    McCallum Webster, M. [2181], United Kingdom K001045254
    Schimper [1343], Ethiopia K000410236 Unknown type material
    Schimper [1958], Ethiopia K000410237
    Talbot [s.n.], Italy K001065893 syntype
    Amaral, I.L. [107061], Brazil K001031230
    Kotschy [319], Sudan K000410238 Unknown type material
    Baker, C.F. [1760], California K001065883
    Hunt, T.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001045251
    Douglas, D. [s.n.] K001065884 isotype
    Hoehne, W. [544], Brazil K001031231
    Sledge, W.A. [H2258 1933], United Kingdom K001045248
    [Heldreich] [s.n.] K001065892
    s.coll. [s.n.] K001065888 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [s.n.] K001065894
    Sherff, E.E. [3094], Illinois K001065882
    Sherff, E.E. [5012] K001065885
    [Bulbley], E. [s.n.], India K001065887
    [Helderich] [s.n.] K001065891
    Burchell, J. [2901], Brazil K000955674
    Mc Callum Webster, M. [5165], United Kingdom K001045247
    Herb. Lousley, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001045249
    Medlam, L. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001045252
    Medlin, L.J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001045253
    Ricketts, V.I. [V-C 5], United Kingdom K001045255
    Ricketts, V.I. [V-C 5], United Kingdom K001045256

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 987 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Pruski, J.F. (ed.) (2018). Flora Mesoamericana 5(2): 1-608. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2011). Asteraceae Flora of China 20-21: 1-992. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • GCC in GCC (2011). Global Compositae Checklist Global Compositae Checklist http://compositae.landcareresearch.co.nz/.
    • Krasnoborov, I.M. (ed.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 13: 1-499. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
    • Probatova, N.S. & al. (2006). Flora Rossiiskogo Dal'nego Vostoka. Dopolneniya i izmeneniya k izdaniyu Sosudistye rasteniya sovetskogo Dal'nego Vostoka t. 1-8 (1985-1996): 1-454. Russian academy of sciences Far Eastern branch.
    • Liogier, A.H. (1996). Flora de la Española 8: 1-588. Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo.
    • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1992). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 6: 1-428. Nauka, Leningrad.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Prakash, L. & Balasubramanian, P. (2018). Invasive alien flora of Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in Southern Eastern Ghats, India Indian Forester 144: 857-862.
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Krasnoborov, I.M. (ed.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 13: 1-499. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2006). Asteraceae Flora of North America North of Mexico 21: 1-616. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Missouri Botanic Garden (2005). Vascular Tropicos Nomenclatural Database http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html.
    • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1992). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 6: 1-428. Nauka, Leningrad.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • D.J.N. Hind in Fl. Masc. 109: 218, t. 75 (1993).
    • Wild in Kirkia 6: 3 (1967).
    • Oliv. & Hiern, Flora of Tropical Africa 3: 371 (1877).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 987 (1753).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/