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  1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Cynoglossum L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Old World.


    Boraginaceae, E. S. Martins (Trichodesma by R. K. Brummit). Flora Zambesiaca 7:4. 1990

    Annual, biennial or perennial herbs.
    Leaves alternate, the basal ones long petiolate, the cauline ones shortly petiolate or sessile.
    Inflorescence of scorpioid cymes, ebracteate or bracteate to the base.
    Flowers hermaphrodite, pedicellate.
    Calyx 5-lobed, not or but a little accrescent.
    Corolla tube short, cylindrical or infundibuliform, closed with 5 scales (fornices) at the throat; lobes 5, imbricate.
    Stamens included; filaments very short; anthers ovate, elliptic or oblong, obtuse.
    Gynobase conical.
    Ovary of 4 separate lobes, attached to the gynobase only by a little part of the inner surface; style usually shorter than the calyx; stigma terminal, capitate or subcapitate.
    Fruit of 4 nutlets; nutlets glochidiate, depressed, with the outer surface flat, slightly concave or convex, the inner surface with the attach cicatrice near the apex, cohering with style or free.

    Boraginaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

    Perennial, biennial or rarely annual usually very hairy herbs or subshrubby herbs
    Leaves alternate, the radical ones long-petiolate, the cauline ones sessile or shortly petiolate
    Cymes terminal or axillary, generally ebracteate, scorpioid, lengthening considerably in fruit
    Flowers white or blue, pedicellate or subsessile; calyx persistent with 5 spreading or reflexed lobes, slightly accrescent
    Corolla cylindric-rotate or funnel-shaped with 5 broadly ovate imbricate spreading obtuse lobes; throat closed by ± squarish or crescent-shaped appendages
    Stamens 5, included, inserted at the base or towards the apex of the tube
    Ovary distinctly 4-lobed, adhering to the central stylar column by a part of the internal face only of each lobe; style gynobasic; disc sometimes distinct and lobulate
    Nutlets 4, depressed-ovoid, usually densely echinulate with glochidiate spines or smooth in part, sometimes the apical beak cohering with the style.



    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Angola, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Borneo, Bulgaria, Burundi, Buryatiya, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Comoros, Congo, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Free State, Germany, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Manchuria, Mauritius, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Netherlands, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nigeria, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qinghai, Queensland, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Somalia, South Australia, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Australia, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arkansas, Ascension, Bolivia, Brazil South, California, Chile Central, Chile South, Colombia, Colorado, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Kentucky, Kermadec Is., Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southwest, Missouri, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Norfolk Is., Panamá, Peru, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Tennessee, Texas, Tristan da Cunha, Venezuela, Vermont

    Accepted Species


    Other Data

    Cynoglossum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Keay, R.W.J. [FHI 28376], Cameroon K000029873
    Eyles, F. [8843], Zimbabwe 17687.000
    Sanford, W.W. [5379], Cameroon K000029872


    First published in Sp. Pl.: 134 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.


    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Brand in Engl. Pflanzenr. 4, 252 (1921).
    • —F.T.A. 4, 2: 51

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Brand in Engl., Pflanzenr. 78 [IV, 252]: 114 (1921).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 65 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 134 (1753)

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Brand in E.P. IV. 252 (78): 114 (1921)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 65 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 134 (1753)


    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.