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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical to Tropical Mountains.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or trees, sometimes with spine-tipped branches, sometimes dioecious
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate or opposite, penninerved; stipules small, usually soon falling
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers in axillary cymes or clusters, or flowers solitary, bisexual or unisexual, 4–5-merous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk thin
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary superior, (2–)3(–4)-celled; style usually 3-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a drupe with (2–)3(–4) free stones.
Distribution
Genus of some 140 species in tropical and temperate regions.

[FZ]

Rhamnaceae, R. B. Drummond. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

Morphology General Habit
Small trees or shrubs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate or opposite or fasciculate, petiolate; lamina penninerved, margin often toothed.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules small, soon deciduous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence an axillary fascicle (in our area), less often flowers solitary.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually bisexual.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Receptacle
Receptacle urceolate or flat.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 4–5, valvate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4–5 or absent, cucullate or flat.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4–5.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk thin, lining the receptacle.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary superior, 2–4-locular; ovules 1 per loculus; style simple or 2–3(4)-fid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit obovoid, drupaceous with a fleshy or somewhat woody endocarp.

[FTEA]

Rhamnaceae, Marshall C. Johnston (University of Texas Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1972

Morphology General Habit
Trees or shrubs (or scandent shrubs)
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate (or opposite but not in East Africa), petiolate
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules present, small, free, usually soon deciduous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually in axillary cymes or these reduced to fascicles or solitary flowers, or rarely in more elaborate bracteate or non-bracteate panicles or thyrses, 5- or 4-merous, usually perfect but in some species dioecious (? not in East Africa), perigynous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals present or absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk thin, lining the cup
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 3-celled or reportedly rarely 4-celled (or 2-celled but not in East Africa)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style usually 3-partite about half the length
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a drupe with 3 (or 2 but not in East Africa) or rarely 4 free 1-seeded stones.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Christmas I., Colorado, Comoros, Connecticut, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Free State, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Hainan, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, Nicobar Is., North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Pennsylvania, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Society Is., Somalia, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Argentina Northeast, Mauritius, New Zealand North

Rhamnus L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Buchanan-Hamilton, F. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132931

First published in Sp. Pl.: 193 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00997-6 Scientific Data 8: 215.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"
  • WCVP (2021). World Checklist of Vascular Plants, version 2.0. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://wcvp.science.kew.org/ Retrieved 28 April 2021

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Suessenguth in E. & P. Pflanzenfam. 20D: 59 (1953).
  • —F.T.A. 1: 381

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 89 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 193 (1753)

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 89 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 193 (1753)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0