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  1. Family: Ebenaceae Gürke
    1. Genus: Euclea L.
      1. Euclea divinorum Hiern

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to S. Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Ebenaceae, F. White & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1996

    Habit
    Evergreen shrub or small tree 1.8-9(-15) m. tall; bark grey-brown, red-brown, pale mauve-grey or cinnamon or much darker and almost black, mostly rough with shallow irregular longitudinal fissures, flaking longitudinally; slash pink to crimson or pale yellow to orange; sapwood ochraceous or cream, turning apricot on exposure to air; young shoots with rusty peltate scales but otherwise glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves drying grey-green to chestnut, opposite or subopposite, mostly diamond-shaped (‘ subrhombic’ ) or narrowly rhombic-lanceolate, widest near the middle, 1.6-12 cm. long, 0.6-4.5 cm. wide, narrowed to a ± rounded or emarginate apex, attenuate to narrowly or fairly broadly rounded at the base, the margin often crinkly, glabrous save for rusty peltate scales beneath; venation sometimes slightly raised above but ± inconspicuous; petiole 4-6 mm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences paired in at least some axils, unbranched, dense and contracted, up to 1.5 cm. long.
    Male
    Male flowers ± 3.5 mm. long; calyx yellow, patelliform with short broadly triangular teeth, glabrous save for rusty scales; corolla creamy white, pale yellowish or salmon buff, the lobes sometimes with a pale brown spot, deeply lobed, widely open at the throat, each lobe with more than 25 striga-like hairs along the midpetaline line; stamens ± 16, strigulose; rudimentary ovary with 2 simple or bilobed styles.
    Flowers
    Female flowers without staminodes; ovary yellow, densely strigulose. Male flowers ± 3.5 mm. long; calyx yellow, patelliform with short broadly triangular teeth, glabrous save for rusty scales; corolla creamy white, pale yellowish or salmon buff, the lobes sometimes with a pale brown spot, deeply lobed, widely open at the throat, each lobe with more than 25 striga-like hairs along the midpetaline line; stamens ± 16, strigulose; rudimentary ovary with 2 simple or bilobed styles.
    Female
    Female flowers without staminodes; ovary yellow, densely strigulose.
    Fruits
    Fruit brown to black, globose, 5-7 mm. diameter, with short white hairs.
    Figures
    Fig. 8/1-5.
    Habitat
    Grassland, mostly with scattered trees, open bushland, thicket on anthills, secondary forest, margins of evergreen forest, often on stony slopes; 0-2700 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 U1 widely distributed from Ethiopia and the Sudan to South Africa and Namibia
    [FZ]

    Ebenaceae, F. White. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

    Habit
    Evergreen shrub or small tree up to 9 m. tall (elsewhere up to 15 m.).
    Bark
    Bark grey–brown to black, usually rough and longitudinally fissured.
    Shoots
    Young shoots glabrous except for rusty, peltate scales.
    Leaves
    Leaves usually opposite or subopposite; petiole 0·4–0·6 cm. long; lamina up to 9 x 4 cm., variable in width, otherwise uniform, subrhombic or subtrullate, broadest at or below the middle, apex acute, the tip itself rounded, base attenuate and slightly concave, margin often strongly undulate; lower surface glabrous except for rusty, peltate scales; lateral nerves and main veins sometimes slightly raised above, otherwise inconspicuous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence paired in at least some leaf–axils, unbranched, dense and contracted, up to 1·5 cm. long.
    Flowers
    Male flowers c. 0·35 cm. long. Female flowers without staminodes.
    Calyx
    Calyx patelliform with short, broadly deltate teeth, glabrous except for rusty, peltate scales.
    Corolla
    Corolla deeply lobed, widely open at the throat, each lobe with more than 25 strigulose hairs along the mid–petaline line.
    Male
    Corolla deeply lobed, widely open at the throat, each lobe with more than 25 strigulose hairs along the mid–petaline line. Male flowers c. 0·35 cm. long. Calyx patelliform with short, broadly deltate teeth, glabrous except for rusty, peltate scales. Stamens c. 16, strigulose. Pistillode with 2 simple or bilobed stylodes.
    Stamens
    Stamens c. 16, strigulose.
    Pistillodes
    Pistillode with 2 simple or bilobed stylodes.
    Female
    Female flowers without staminodes. Ovary densely strigulose.
    Ovary
    Ovary densely strigulose.
    Fruits
    Fruit c. 0·7 cm. diameter.
    Cytology
    Chromosome number: 2n = 30.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Caprivi Strip, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Common Names

    English
    Diamond leaf, Diamond-leaved euclea, Magic guarri, Toothbrush tree

    Other Data

    Euclea divinorum Hiern appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1970 Erens, J. [242], Botswana K000489280
    Jan 1, 1970 Yalala, A.M. [191], Botswana K000489273
    Jan 1, 1969 Erens, J. [240], Botswana K000489278
    Jan 1, 1969 Miller, O.B. [2], Botswana K000489279
    Jan 1, 1969 Fries, R.E. [1143], Kenya K000350520 paratype
    Jan 1, 1969 Fries, R.E. [634], Kenya K000350521 paratype
    Jan 1, 1969 Fries, R.E. [656], Kenya K000350522 isotype
    Nov 19, 1952 Forbes [s.n.], Mozambique K000350531 Unknown type material
    Apr 9, 1949 Baum, H. [33], Angola K000350532
    Rayner, R.W. [405], Kenya 11782.000
    Kirk, J. [s.n.], Zambia K000350530 lectotype
    Erens, J. [229], Botswana K000489277
    Ash [394], Ethiopia 55016.000
    Mavi, S. [1140], Botswana K000489276
    Smith, P.A. [695], Botswana K000489274
    Hiemstra, H. [258], Botswana K000489275
    Christenhusz, M.J.M., Kamau, P., Mbale, M. [6681], Kenya K000696620
    Ash [678], Ethiopia Euclea balfourii 33413.000
    Balfour, I.B. [167], Yemen Euclea balfourii K001208205 syntype
    Schweinfurth [644], Yemen Euclea balfourii K001208206 syntype

    Bibliography

    First published in Trans. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 12: 99 (1873)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Beentje, Kenya Trees, Shrubs and Lianas p. 448, figs. (1994).
    • K. Coates Palgrave, Trees Southern Afr., ed. 3, revised: 737, t. 242 (1990).
    • F. White, Flore d'Afrique Centrale, Ebenaceae: 98 (1987).
    • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 3: 34, fig. 10/3 (1985).
    • F. White in Flora Zambesiaca 7(1): 299, t. 68D (1983).
    • Vollesen in Opera Bot. 59: 31 (1980).
    • Palmer & Pitman, Trees Southern Afr. 3: 1779, t. & photo. (1973).
    • De Winter & F. White in Prodr. Fl. S.W.-Afr. 107: 6 (1967).
    • De Winter in Flora of Southern Africa 26: 94 (1963).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 333 (1962).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 370 (1952).
    • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 105 (1952).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 187 (1949).
    • R.E. Fr. in Wiss. Ergebn. Schwed. Rhod.-Kongo-Exped. 1: 256 (1916).
    • Sim, For. Fl. Port. E. Afr.: 81 (1909).
    • Hiern in Flora of Tropical Africa 3: 513 (1877).
    • Hiern in Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc. 12: 99 (1873)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/