1. Family: Gentianaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Canscora Lam.
      1. Canscora diffusa (Vahl) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa to SW. Pacific. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 3000 - 3750 m.; Andes.
    Habit
    Hierba, liana
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [UPB]

    The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

    Conservation
    Not Evaluated.
    Habit
    Herb or liana.
    Ecology
    Alt. 3000 - 3750 m.
    Distribution
    naturalised in Colombia.
    [FWTA]

    Gentianaceae, P. Taylor. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Erect herb up to 2 ft. high
    Inflorescences
    A much-branched many-flowered inflorescence
    Flowers
    Flowers white or lilac.
    [FZ]

    Gentianaceae, J. Paiva and I. Nogueira. Flora Zambesiaca 7:4. 1990

    Habit
    Annual erect herb, up to 35 (70) cm. tall, much branched.
    Stem
    Stem slender, 4-angled, glabrous.
    Leaves
    Upper leaves sessile, the lower shortly petiolate; petiole up to 5 mm. long; lamina 1–3 (4) x 0.5–1.5 cm., ovate-elliptic to elliptic, acute at the apex, largely cuneate at the base, 3–5 nerved from the base, glabrous.
    Flowers
    Flowers very numerous, pink, mauve or white, in lax somewhat diffuse, leafy cymes; bracts 4–8 x 2–5 mm., sessile, ovate, acute; pedicels 5–15 mm. long, filiform, not winged.
    Calyx
    Calyx tube 4–5 mm. long, narrow, scarcely swollen towards the base, not winged; teeth subulate; 1.5–2 mm. long.
    Corolla
    Corolla tube 5–6 mm. long; lobes 1.5–2 x 1–1.5 mm., unequal, ovate obtuse.
    Stamens
    Filaments 0.4–0.9 mm. long; anthers 0.25–0.35 x 0.25 mm., ellipsoid; sterile stamens 1–2.
    Pistil
    Ovary 0.3–0.4 mm. long, cylindric; style 1–1.5 mm. long, linear; stigmatic lobes, 0.4 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule 4–5 mm. long, cylindric.
    Seeds
    Seeds, 0.2 mm. in diam., numerous; testa minutely faveolate.
    [FTEA]

    Gentianaceae, Sileshi Nemomissa. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2002

    Habit
    Annual herb, to 70 cm high.
    Stem
    Stem slender, branched from the base, ridges smooth or minutely winged.
    Leaves
    Leaves membranous, ovate or ovate-lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, 6–48 mm long, 4–18(–23) mm wide, acute, cuneate at base.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences dichasial cymes, diffuse, sometimes ± slightly contracted; bracts 4–8.5 x 2–4(5) mm, ovate, acute; pedicels 5–10 mm long, very slender.
    Flowers
    Flowers usually 4-merous (rarely 5-merous), irregular.
    Calyx
    Calyx tube 4–7 mm long; lobes unequal, linear-lanceolate, 1–2 mm long, ± 1 mm wide, acuminate.
    Corolla
    Corolla tube cylindrical, 4–7 mm long; lobes unequal, 2 shorter and 2 longer, 2.2–4 mm long, ± 1–2 mm wide, emarginate.
    Stamens
    Filaments unequal, 1 longer, always inserted higher up in the corolla tube, ± 0.4–0.8 mm long, 3 shorter, 0.2–0.3 mm long, inserted lower down; anthers up to 0.5 mm long, oblong, 1–2 perhaps sterile.
    Pistil
    Ovary up to 3.2 mm long; style 1.2–1.8 mm long; stigma 0.3–0.5 mm long, bilobed, lobes unequal, papillose.
    Fruits
    Capsule oblong to ellipsoid, 3.8–11 mm long, ± 3 mm diameter.
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, up to 0.3 mm in diameter, surface reticulate-pitted.
    Figures
    Fig. 12 (p. 41).
    Habitat
    Stream-banks; 950–1050 m
    Distribution
    T4 T7 widespread in tropical Africaalso in India, SE Asia and Australia
    [FZ]

    Gentianaceae, J. Paiva and I. Nogueira. Flora Zambesiaca 7:4. 1990

    Habit
    Annual erect herb, up to 30 (35) cm. tall.
    Stem
    Stem slender, 4-angled, glabrous.
    Leaves
    Upper leaves sessile, the lower shortly petiolate; petiole up to 5 mm. long; lamina 1–3.5 x 0.5–1.5 (2.5) cm., ovate-elliptic to elliptic, acute at the apex, widely cuneate at the base, 3–5 nerved from the base, glabrous.
    Flowers
    Flowers very numerous, pink, pinkish-white or white, in slender leafy cymes; bracts 3–5 x 1.5–3 mm., sessile, ovate, acute; pedicels 4–12 mm. long, slender, not winged.
    Calyx
    Calyx tube 2–2.5 mm. long; teeth deltoid acute, 0.75–1.5 mm. long.
    Corolla
    Corolla tube 2.5–3.5 mm. long; lobes 1.5–2 x 1–1.5 mm., obovate-elliptic, oblong, emarginate or bifid at the apex.
    Stamens
    Stamens all alike and fertile; filaments 0.5–0.7 mm. long; anthers 0.5 mm. long.
    Pistil
    Ovary 0.2–0.3 mm. long, cylindric; style c. 1 mm. long, linear; stigmatic lobes c. 0.3 mm. long, obovate.
    Fruits
    Capsule 3–3.5 mm. long, cylindric.
    Seeds
    Seeds 0.2–0.35 mm. diam., subglobose, numerous, minutely scrobiculate.
    [UPB]
    Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
    Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, Nigeria, Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Colombia

    Canscora diffusa (Vahl) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2000 Kirk, J. [s.n.], Zimbabwe K000096982 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2000 Kotschy [488], India K000857031 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2000 Kotschy [488], India K000857032 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2000 Dalzell, N.A. [s.n.], India K000821661 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2000 Dalzell, N.A. [s.n.], India K000821665
    Jan 1, 2000 Tavoy, W.G. [4361], India K000857033
    Jan 1, 2000 Roxburgh [s.n.], India K000857035
    Jan 1, 2000 Ritchie, D. [466], India K000821666 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2000 s.coll. [670], India K000857030 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2000 s.coll. [4361], India K000857034
    Jan 1, 2000 s.coll. [s.n.], India K000857038
    Chevalier, A. [62], Mali K000385834
    Dalzell, N.A. [s.n.], India K000821662 Unknown type material
    Dalzell, N.A. [s.n.], India K000821663 Unknown type material
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4361] K001038825
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4361] K001038826
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4361] K001038827
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4361] K001038829
    Lobb [345], India K000857036
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 4361], Myanmar K001038828
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 4361] K001038830
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 4361] K001038831
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 4361] K001038832
    Roxburgh [s.n.], India K000857037
    Ritchie, D. [s.n.], India K000821664 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [s.n.], India K000821667 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [2296], India K000857039
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 4361], India K001038819
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 4361] K001038820
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 4361] K001038821
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 4361], India K001038822
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 4361] K001038823
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 4361] K001038824
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 4361] K001038818
    Greenway, P.J. [8017], Zimbabwe Canscora kirkii 3447.000

    First published in Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 3: 301 (1818)

    Accepted by

    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Shahina, P.M. & Nampy, S. (2014). A taxonomic revision of the genus Canscora in South India, and the erection of the new genus Canscorinella (Canscorinae, Gentianaceae) with two new combinations Phytotaxa 164: 201-225.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Singh, M. & Ali, S.J. (2008). A study on aquatic Angiosperms of district Mau (East U.P.) Journal of East African Natural History 32: 877-890.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Nemomissa, S. (2002). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Gentianaceae: 1-68.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Launert, E. & Pope, G.V. (eds.) (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 1-114. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Boutique, R. (1972). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Gentianaceae: 1-56. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.

    Literature

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    • Kew Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) https://www.kew.org/science/data-and-resources/tools-and-services/medicinal-plant-names-services in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Chev. Bot.
    • F.T.A. 4, 1: 558
    • Syst. 3: 301 (1820)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Nemomissa, S. (2002). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Gentianaceae: 1-68.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1995). Flora of China 16: 1-479. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Launert, E. & Pope, G.V. (eds.) (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 1-114. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Klack. in Fl. Madag. 168: 158 (1990).
    • Boutique in Flore d'Afrique Centrale, Gentianaceae: 32, fig. 2/b (1972).
    • P. Taylor in Flora of West Tropical Africa ed. 2, 2: 300 (1963).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 64 (1956).
    • Hutch. & Dalz., Flora of West Tropical Africa 2: 183 (1931).
    • Baker & N.E. Br. in Flora of Tropical Africa 4 (1): 558 (1903).
    • Griseb., Gen. Sp. Gent.: 152 (1839).
    • Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 3: 301 (1820).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0