1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Alopecurus L.
      1. Alopecurus arundinaceus Poir.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Temp. Eurasia, NW. Africa.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes elongated. Culms erect; 23-105 cm long; 2 -noded. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface, or puberulous. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1.5-5 mm long; truncate, or obtuse. Leaf-blades 6-40 cm long; 3-10 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous; rough adaxially. Leaf-blade margins scabrous. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; subtended by an inflated leaf-sheath. Panicle spiciform; linear; 1.7-7 cm long; 0.6-1.4 cm wide. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with evident branchlets on axis. Panicle axis with rounded ribs. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 3.5-7 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 3.5-7 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes connate along margins below; 0.25 of their length connate; similar; reaching apex of florets, or exceeding apex of florets; recurved at apex. Lower glume lanceolate; 3.5-7 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Lower glume primary vein ciliate. Lower glume surface pilose; hairy on veins. Lower glume hairs 1-2 mm long. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 3.5-7 mm long; 1-1.2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein ciliate. Upper glume surface pilose; hairy on veins. Upper glume hairs 1-2 mm long. Upper glume apex acute; muticous.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma ovate; 3.5-5.8 mm long; membranous; keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma margins connate below; with 0.33 of their length connate. Lemma apex truncate; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn dorsal; arising 0.4 way up back of lemma; straight, or curved; 5-7.5 mm long overall; not or scarcely exserted from spikelet.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 3-3.6 mm long. Stigmas terminally exserted; pubescent. Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Hilum punctiform. Disseminule comprising a spikelet.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, China, and Mongolia. Asia-tropical: India. North America: north-central USA.
    Reference
    Aveneae. Fl Turk 1993.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Switzerland

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Baltic States, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Central European Rus, China North-Central, Chita, Denmark, East European Russia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Irkutsk, Italy, Kazakhstan, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, Kuril Is., Lebanon-Syria, Magadan, Manchuria, Mongolia, Morocco, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Romania, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Alberta, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Kentucky, Manitoba, Montana, Nebraska, Newfoundland, North Dakota, Northwest Territorie, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wyoming

    Alopecurus arundinaceus Poir. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Swartz [s.n.] K000913472
    Swartz [s.n.] K000913474
    Loscos y Bernal, F. [94], Spain K000913470
    Loscos y Bernal, F. [94], Spain K000913471
    Leresche, L. [s.n.], Spain K000913496
    Leresche, L. [s.n.], Spain K000913495
    Desfontaines, R.L. [s.n.] K000913473
    Brittinger, C. [2407] K000913475

    First published in J.B.A.M.de Lamarck, Encycl. 8: 766 (1808)

    Accepted by

    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Grubov, V.I. (2008). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-503. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Sapir, Y., Shmida, A. & Fragman, O. (2003). Constructing Red Numbers for setting conservation priorities of endangered plant species: Israeli flora as a test case Journal for Nature Conservation 11: 1-17.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Gorchakovskii, P.L. & al. (1994). Opredelitel' sosudistykkhrastenii srednego Urala: 1-524. Nauka, Moscow.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Marhold, K. (ed.) (2012). IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 13 Taxon 61: 889-902.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Grubov, V.I. (2008). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-503. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Sapir, Y., Shmida, A. & Fragman, O. (2003). Constructing Red Numbers for setting conservation priorities of endangered plant species: Israeli flora as a test case Journal for Nature Conservation 11: 1-17.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Gorchakovskii, P.L. & al. (1994). Opredelitel' sosudistykkhrastenii srednego Urala: 1-524. Nauka, Moscow.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1957). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 1: 1-547. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Roshevitz, R.J. & al. (eds.) (1950). Flora Kirgizskoi SSR 2: 1-315. Frunze : Izd-vo KirgizFAN SSSR.
    • Merkodovich, N.A. (ed.) (1941). Flora Uzbekistana 1: 1-566. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Fedtschenko, B.A. & al. (1932). Flora Turkmenii 1: 1-340. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0