1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Anthoxanthum L.
      1. Anthoxanthum nivale K.Schum.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is NE. DR Congo to E. Tropical Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted perennial with slender rhizomes.
    Culms
    Culms 25–90 cm. high, erect, clad below in papery leaf-sheaths which form a soft spongy covering, rarely the sheaths tight and the culms wiry and ascending.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades rather short and broad, mostly 8–25 cm. long and 4–10 mm. broad, sometimes narrow and linear, rarely involute, pubescent above and below, rarely glabrous, abruptly narrowed or obtuse at the tip; ligules papery, ± 5 mm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle untidily cylindrical, 5–15 cm. long and 1–1.5 cm. wide, straw-coloured tinged with violet.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets lanceolate, the awns scarcely protruding; glumes glabrous or obscurely scaberulous, sometimes with a few stiff cilia on the keel; lower glume narrowly ovate, 4–5 mm. long, 1-nerved, acuminate; upper glume lanceolate-oblong, 7–9 mm. long, 3-nerved, the nerves close together, mucronate; sterile lemmas 3.5–5 mm. long, obtusely bilobed, the awn of the upper 5–8 mm. long; fertile lemma 2.5 mm. long, sessile, rarely mucronate; anthers 2–4.5 mm. long.
    Figures
    Fig. 26, p. 78.
    Habitat
    Moist ground in upland grassland and moorland often along streams; 2400–4800 m.
    Distribution
    K2 K3 K4 K5 T2 U2 U3 a slender-stemmed variant of the species occurs in Ethiopia
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes elongated. Butt sheaths papery; persistent and investing base of culm; with soft dead sheaths. Culms erect; 25-90 cm long. Leaves mostly basal. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 5 mm long. Leaf-blades 8-25 cm long; 4-10 mm wide; aromatic. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pubescent; hairy on both sides. Leaf-blade apex obtuse, or abruptly acute.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear, or oblong; continuous, or interrupted; 5-15 cm long; 1-1.5 cm wide. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong; pubescent.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 7-9 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 7-9 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma; shiny. Lower glume ovate; 4-5 mm long; 0.5-0.6 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume primary vein smooth, or scabrous. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume elliptic; 7-9 mm long; 3-4 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; with hyaline margins; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein smooth, or scabrous. Upper glume apex acuminate.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets dissimilar; barren; without significant palea; attached to and deciduous with the fertile. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; 3.5-5 mm long; 1.5-2 length of fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined; pilose; lobed; 2 -fid; obtuse; awned. Awn of lower sterile floret dorsal; arising 0.6 way up back of lemma; 1-3 mm long. Lemma of upper sterile floret oblong; 3.5-5 mm long; 1 length of lower sterile floret; membranous; pilose; lobed; 2 -fid; obtuse; awned. Awn of upper sterile floret dorsal; arising 0.33 way up back of lemma; geniculate; 5-8 mm long. Fertile lemma orbicular; 2.5 mm long; cartilaginous; shiny; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea oblong; 1 length of lemma; 1 -veined; without keels.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 2; 2-4.5 mm long. Stigmas 2; protogynous; pubescent.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid. Embryo 0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform.
    Distribution
    Africa: west-central tropical and east tropical.
    Reference
    Aveneae. FTEA.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaïre

    Anthoxanthum nivale K.Schum. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Greenway, P.J. [3798], Tanzania K000307980 Unknown type material
    Volkens, G. [973], Tanzania K000307981 syntype

    First published in H.G.A.Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas, C: 107 (1895)

    Accepted by

    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 18 (1965).
    • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p. 16 (1960).
    • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 35 (1958).
    • O. Hedberg, Afroalpine Vascular Plants p. 54, 262 (1957).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 3: 178 (1955).
    • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 3 (1947).
    • K. Schum. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 107 (1895).

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0