1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Briza L.
      1. Briza maxima L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia to Medit. It is has environmental uses.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Habit
    A loosely tufted annual.
    Culms
    Culms (10)20-70 cm. tall, 2-4-noded, simple, terete, slender, erect or ascending from a geniculate base, smooth.
    Leaf sheaths
    Leaf-sheaths often tinged with purple, loose, striate, dorsally rounded, glabrous, smooth.
    Ligules
    Ligule 2-5 mm. long.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf-laminae 5-25 x 0·25-0·75 cm., pale-green, tapering to an acute point, usually expanded, flaccid, glabrous, scaberulous along the edges.
    Inflorescences
    Panicles 4-10 cm. long, rather loose, with (1)3-12 Spikelets, usually pendulous; axis very slender.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels up to 2 cm. long, capillary, very flexible.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 15-25 x 8-14 mm., 7-20-flowered, pale-green to silver-green (often especially the glumes) purplish to red-brown, broadly ovate-cordate in outline, glabrous or often shortly pilose.
    Glume
    Glumes 5-7 mm. long, often purplish, 7- (inconspicuously 9) nerved, broadly ovate from a cordate base, apex rounded to obtusely acuminate.
    Lemma
    Lemmas 6-7·5 mm. long, dorsally rounded, 7-9-nerved, broadly ovate, apex shortly acuminate, usually shortly pilose; the hairs tipped with glands.
    Palea
    Paleas with the narrow wings shortly ciliate.
    Anthers
    Anthers 2-2·25 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis c. 2·5 mm. long, light brown, broadly obovate to almost circular in outline.
    [UPB]

    The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

    Ecology
    Alt. 2000 - 3000 m.
    Habit
    Herb.
    Distribution
    Introduced and naturalised in Colombia.
    Conservation
    Not Evaluated.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annual.
    Culms
    Culms 10–60 cm. high, loosely tufted or solitary, erect or geniculate, slender.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades 5–20 cm. long and 3–8 mm. wide, flat, minutely rough on the margins.
    Inflorescences
    Panicles 3–10 cm. long, loose, prettily nodding, bearing up to 12 spikelets on capillary pedicels.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 7–20-flowered, ovate to oblong, plump, 14–25 mm. long and 8–15 mm. wide, glabrous or minutely hairy, pale green, silvery, or suffused with reddish-brown or purple; lemmas 6–8 mm. long, very broad, rounded on the back, obtuse.
    Figures
    Fig. 19/1–12.
    Habitat
    Roadsides and cultivated land in the highlands; a garden escape where occasionally cultivated for ornamental purposes; 2400–2700 m.
    Distribution
    Mediterranean regionnaturalized in many warm temperate countries K3
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 2000 - 3000 m.; Andes, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual; caespitose. Culms erect, or decumbent; 10-60 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 2-5 mm long. Leaf-blades 5-20 cm long; 3-8 mm wide. Leaf-blade margins scaberulous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; comprising 3-12 fertile spikelets. Panicle open; obovate; 3-10 cm long; bearing few spikelets. Spikelets pendulous; solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform; recurved; 5-20 mm long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 7-20 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong, or ovate; laterally compressed; 14-25 mm long; 8-15 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes obscured by lemmas.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 7-20 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong, or ovate; laterally compressed; 14-25 mm long; 8-15 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes obscured by lemmas.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume ovate; 5-7 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; chartaceous; without keels; 7-9 -veined. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume ovate; 5-7 mm long; 0.75 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; without keels; 7-9 -veined. Upper glume apex obtuse.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma orbicular; auriculate at base; gibbous; 6-8 mm long; chartaceous; much thinner on margins; keeled; lightly keeled; keeled below; 7-9 -veined. Lemma surface glabrous, or pubescent; with capitate hairs. Lemma apex cuspidate. Palea orbicular; 0.5 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels winged; narrowly winged; ciliate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2. Anthers 3; 2-2.5 mm long. Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; 2.5 mm long. Embryo 0.25 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear; 0.5 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Soviet far east, Caucasus, western Asia, and China. Asia-tropical: India and Malesia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: south-central and north-central. North America: eastern Canada, southwest USA, and south-central USA. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Poeae. FTEA.
    [UPB]
    Environmental
    Environmental uses (State of the World's Plants 2016).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Azores, Baleares, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Corse, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., France, Greece, Italy, Kriti, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, Palestine, Portugal, Sardegna, Sicilia, Spain, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Alberta, Amur, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Austria, Baltic States, Bermuda, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, California, Cape Provinces, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Colombia, Colorado, Czechoslovakia, Ecuador, Egypt, Florida, Free State, Georgia, Great Britain, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, India, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kenya, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Marquesas, Masachusettes, Mauritius, Michigan, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Norfolk Is., North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Primorye, Queensland, Québec, Réunion, South Australia, South European Russi, Sri Lanka, Tasmania, Transcaucasus, Uruguay, Vermont, Victoria, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Zimbabwe

    Briza maxima L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 26, 2011 Rico, L. [2244], Syria K000764191
    Sep 1, 2005 s.coll. [s.n.] K000789813 Unknown type material
    Hatschbach, G. [33826], Brazil K001077865
    Rico, L. [1804], Tunisia K000296009
    Rico, L. [1959], Morocco K000564868
    Saito, Y. [829], Brazil K001077866
    Requien, E. [s.n.], France K000789812
    Swainson, W. [s.n.], Italy K000789811

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 70 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
    • Hall, D.W. (2019). Grasses of Florida: 1-353. University press of Florida.
    • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2012). Nova Silva Cusatlantica. Árboles natinos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 2: Angiospermae - Familias M a P y Pteridophyta Englera 29-2: 1-300.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Meyer, F.K. (2011). Beiträge zur Flora von Albanien Haussknechtia, Beih. 15: 1-220.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.

    Literature

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    • GRIN National Genetic Resources Program http://www.ars-grin.gov in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
    • Hall, D.W. (2019). Grasses of Florida: 1-353. University press of Florida.
    • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2012). Nova Silva Cusatlantica. Árboles natinos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 2: Angiospermae - Familias M a P y Pteridophyta Englera 29-2: 1-300.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
    • Mouterde, P. (1966). Nouvelle Flore du Liban et de la Syrie 1(Texte): 1-563. Éditions de l'imprimerie Catholique, Beyrouth.
    • de Cordemoy, E.J. (1895). Flore de l'ile de la Réunion: 1-574. Librairie des sciences naturelles Paul Klincksieck, Paris.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 15 (1958).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 70 (1753).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0