1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Bromus L.
      1. Bromus diandrus Roth

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Medit. and Iran and Arabian Peninsula.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annual; culms 35–80 cm. high, erect or spreading.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades 10–25 cm. long and 4–8 mm. wide; sheaths loosely hairy.
    Inflorescences
    Panicles loose or somewhat contracted, up to 25 cm. long but variable in size and bearing few to many spikelets, nodding.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets loosely 5–8-flowered, oblong to wedge-shaped, 3–5 cm. long; glumes finely pointed, the lower subulate, 15–23 mm. long, 1–3-nerved, the upper narrowly lanceolate, 20–32 mm. long, 3–5-nerved; lemmas narrowly lanceolate in side view, 22–36 mm. long, herbaceous with hyaline margins, 7-nerved, scabrid, acuminately bilobed, awned from 4–7 mm. below the tip; awn 3.5–6 cm. long, straight, scabrid; callus oblong, ± 1 mm. long, obtuse; palea shorter than the lemma, sparsely and stiffly ciliate on the keels; anthers 2–3, 0.8–1.5 mm. long.
    Habitat
    An introduced species of waste places and old farm land; 2300–3000 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 T3 Mediterranean region, widely established elsewhere as a weed
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual; culms solitary, or caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 35-150 cm long; 3-6 -noded. Leaf-sheaths hispid. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 3-6 mm long; lacerate. Leaf-blades 4-25 cm long; 4-8 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous; pilose.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; ovate; effuse; nodding; 10-25 cm long. Primary panicle branches drooping; 2-4 -nate; simple; 3-10 cm long; bearing 1(-2) fertile spikelets on each lower branch. Panicle branches flexuous; scabrous. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 5-8 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; (20-)45-60 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus evident; 1 mm long.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 5-8 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; (20-)45-60 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus evident; 1 mm long.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; dissimilar; shorter than spikelet; gaping. Lower glume linear; 15-35 mm long; 0.7-0.8 length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 1-3 -veined. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume lanceolate; 20-45 mm long; 0.9 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 3(-5) -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate; 22-45 mm long; chartaceous; much thinner on margins; without keel; 7 -veined. Lemma surface scaberulous. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; incised 0.1-0.2 of lemma length; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn subapical; 35-75 mm long overall; limb scabrous. Palea 0.8 length of lemma. Palea keels ciliolate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 2-3; 0.8-1.5 mm long. Ovary with a fleshy appendage above style insertion; pubescent on apex.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; linear; hairy at apex; apex fleshy. Hilum linear; 1 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, east tropical, and south. Asia-temperate: Soviet far east, Caucasus, western Asia, and Arabia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: north-central. North America: Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana and western South America.
    Reference
    Bromeae. Acedo 1996.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Algeria, Baleares, Corse, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., Egypt, France, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kriti, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Morocco, Palestine, Portugal, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Spain, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Azores, Belgium, British Columbia, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Chatham Is., Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Free State, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northwest, Missouri, Montana, Namibia, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oklahoma, Oregon, Primorye, Queensland, South Australia, South Carolina, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Texas, Utah, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, Western Australia

    Bromus diandrus Roth appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Billot, C. [2981] K000913585
    Boreau, A. [s.n.], France K000913584
    Rugel, F.I.X. [s.n.], France K000913583
    Roth, A.W. [81] K000913586

    First published in Bot. Abh. Beobacht.: 44 (1787)

    Accepted by

    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Saarela, J.M., Peterson, P.M. & Váldes-Reyna, J. (2014). A taxonomic revision of Bromus (Poaceae: Pooideae: Bromeae) in México and Central America Phytotaxa 185(1): 1-147.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
    • von Raab-Straube, E. (ed.) (2012-continuously updated). The Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/query.asp.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Moran, R. (1996). The flora of Guadalupe island, Mexico Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences 19: 1-190.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 14 (1958).
    • Roth, Bot. Abh.: 44 (1787).

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0