1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cymbopogon Spreng.
      1. Cymbopogon commutatus (Steud.) Stapf

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Senegal to Mauritania, NE. & E. Tropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula to N. India.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted perennial, the basal sheaths persistent; culms 15–150 cm. high.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades filiform to flat, 10–50 cm. long, 1–4 mm. wide, smooth or asperulous on the nerves.
    Inflorescences
    False panicle linear to narrowly oblong, 5–35 cm. long; racemes 15–30 mm. long, ciliate with hairs up to 2 mm. long, the upper with 5–8 pairs of spikelets, the lowermost pedicel swollen, free from the adjacent internode which is also sometimes swollen.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet narrowly lanceolate, 4–7 mm. long; lower glume chartaceous, glabrous or pubescent, nerveless (rarely with 2–3 intercarinal nerves in the upper third) and deeply concave between the keels, these rounded in the lower half and often separated by a gibbous swelling at the base, wingless; upper lemma bifid to near the middle, the awn 10–20 mm. long, geniculate, with a distinct column. Pedicelled spikelet narrowly lanceolate, 4.5–7 mm. long.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet narrowly lanceolate, 4–7 mm. long; lower glume chartaceous, glabrous or pubescent, nerveless (rarely with 2–3 intercarinal nerves in the upper third) and deeply concave between the keels, these rounded in the lower half and often separated by a gibbous swelling at the base, wingless; upper lemma bifid to near the middle, the awn 10–20 mm. long, geniculate, with a distinct column.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet narrowly lanceolate, 4.5–7 mm. long.
    Habitat
    Deciduous bushland (typically Acacia-Commiphora) and subdesert grassland; 100–1300 m.
    Distribution
    Mauritania to Somaliathrough Arabia to Iraq and northern India K1 K3 K4 K7 T3 U1
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Butt sheaths persistent and investing base of culm. Culms 15-150 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform, or linear; flat, or involute; 10-50 cm long; 1-4 mm wide; aromatic. Leaf-blade surface smooth, or scaberulous.
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence compound; linear, or paniculate; 5-35 cm long; dense. Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; enclosed. Racemes 2; paired; deflexed; 1.5-3 cm long; bearing 5-8 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; semiterete; ciliate on margins. Rhachis hairs 2 mm long. Rhachis internodes linear. Rhachis internode tip transverse; cupuliform. Raceme-bases flattened; subequal. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels linear; semiterete; ciliate; with 2 mm long hairs.
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 2 in number (lower raceme); 0 in upper raceme; with normal internodes, or with swollen internode in lower raceme; sessile and pedicelled. Basal sterile spikelet pedicels swollen in lower raceme. Basal sterile spikelets equalling fertile. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; 4.5-7 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse; inserted. Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 2 in number (lower raceme); 0 in upper raceme; with normal internodes, or with swollen internode in lower raceme; sessile and pedicelled. Basal sterile spikelet pedicels swollen in lower raceme. Basal sterile spikelets equalling fertile. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; 4.5-7 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse; inserted.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear; 1 length of spikelet; chartaceous; 2-keeled; keeled above; keeled laterally; wingless. Lower glume intercarinal veins absent, or obscure; 0(-3) in number. Lower glume surface concave; impressed with a boss blocking lower end; glabrous, or pubescent. Lower glume apex emarginate. Upper glume lanceolate; 1-keeled. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret hyaline. Fertile lemma lanceolate; hyaline; without keel. Lemma apex lobed; 2 -fid; incised 0.5 of lemma length; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; geniculate; 10-20 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn glabrous. Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, northeast tropical, and east tropical. Asia-temperate: western Asia and Arabia. Asia-tropical: India.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. FTEA.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Erect perennial 1·2–1·5 m. high.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gulf States, India, Iran, Iraq, Kenya, Kuwait, Mauritania, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen

    Cymbopogon commutatus (Steud.) Stapf appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Radcliffe-Smith, A. [5586], Oman K000974918 Unknown type material
    Schimper [1801] K000280499
    Drake-Brockman [410] K000280500 syntype
    Drake-Brockman [410] K000280502 syntype
    Drake-Brockman [410] K000280501 syntype
    Pearson, R.S. [s.n.], Uttar Pradesh K000245847 holotype
    Pearson, R.S. [s.n.], Uttar Pradesh K000974912 isotype
    Pearson, R.S. [s.n.], Uttar Pradesh K000974911 isotype
    Pearson, R.S. [s.n.], Uttar Pradesh K000974910 isotype
    Pearson, R.S. [s.n.], Uttar Pradesh K000245848 isotype

    First published in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1907: 211 (1907)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Gillet, H. (1968). Le peuplement végétal du massif de l'Ennedi (Tchad) Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Serie B. Botanique 17: 1-206.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 275.
    • in Kew Bull. 1907: 211
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Al-Rawi, A. (1987). Flora of Kuwait 2: 1-455. Alden Press Ltd., U.K.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Gillet, H. (1968). Le peuplement végétal du massif de l'Ennedi (Tchad) Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Serie B. Botanique 17: 1-206.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 482 (1972).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 422 (1956).
    • Stapf in Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 275 (1919).
    • Stapf in Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Kew 1907: 211 (1907)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0