1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Hyparrhenia Andersson ex E.Fourn.
      1. Hyparrhenia dregeana (Nees) Stapf ex Stent

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Eritrea to S. Africa, SW. Arabian Peninsula.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Densely tufted perennial, the basal leaf-sheaths silky pubescent below; culms robust, 1.5–2 m. high or more, Leaf-blades mostly up to 60 cm. long, 3–8 mm. wide, usually harsh and glaucous but sometimes soft and green.
    Inflorescences
    False panicle narrow, fairly dense, 20–50 cm. long; spatheoles narrowly lanceolate, 2.5–5 cm. long, becoming reddish-brown, the peduncles from 1/2 to rather longer than the spatheole; racemes 10–25-awned per pair, densely spiculate with internodes 1.5–2 mm. long, tardily deflexed; raceme-bases subequal, the upper 1–1.5 mm. long, flattened, stiffly bearded, usually with a scarious lobe up to 0.5 mm. long at its tip. Homogamous pairs 1 at the base of the lower raceme only.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet 4–5.5 mm. long, densely villous to hispidulous, rarely glabrous; callus cuneate, 1 mm. long, subacute to narrowly obtuse; awn (1–)8–20(–28) mm. long.
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet densely villous to hispidulous, rarely glabrous, muticous or sometimes with a brief awn-point. Sessile spikelet 4–5.5 mm. long, densely villous to hispidulous, rarely glabrous; callus cuneate, 1 mm. long, subacute to narrowly obtuse; awn (1–)8–20(–28) mm. long.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet densely villous to hispidulous, rarely glabrous, muticous or sometimes with a brief awn-point.
    Habitat
    Upland grasslands; 2000–2600 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 T2 T4 T5 T7 U1 Ethiopia and Sudan to South Africa
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Robust, densely caespitose perennial; culms up to 200 cm high (or more) and up to 4 mm in diameter at the base, simple or scantily branched.
    Leaves
    Basal leaf sheaths silky pubescent below, otherwise all sheaths glabrous; leaf laminas up to 60 cm × 3–8 mm, flat or inrolled and narrower, glabrous, usually stiff and glaucous with scaberulous nerves and harsh to the touch, sometimes soft and green.
    Inflorescences
    False panicle 20–50 cm long, narrow, fairly dense; spatheoles 2.5–5 cm long, narrowly lanceolate, glabrous or thinly hirsute (rarely the whole panicle copiously villous), becoming reddish-brown; peduncles 1.5–5 cm long, from half as long as to rather longer than the spatheole, pilose above with yellowish hairs; racemes 2–3 cm long, 10–25-awned per pair, usually exserted terminally, tardily deflexed; raceme-bases subequal, the superior 1–1.5 mm long, flattened, stiffly barbate, the apex with a scarious rim and usually produced into a definite oblong appendage up to 0.5 mm long.
    Homogamous
    Homogamous spikelets 5–7 mm long, a single pair at the base of the inferior raceme only, villous or rarely glabrous.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelets 4–5 mm long; callus c. 1 mm long, cuneate, subacute to narrowly obtuse at the apex; inferior glume oblong-lanceolate, yellowish-green to light brown or purple, densely villous to hispidulous, rarely glabrous; awn (1)8–20(28) mm long, the column pubescent with tawny hairs. Homogamous spikelets 5–7 mm long, a single pair at the base of the inferior raceme only, villous or rarely glabrous. Pedicelled spikelets 5–6 mm long, similar to the sessile spikelets in indumentum and colouring, muticous or with a short awn-point up to 1.5 mm long at the apex; callus scarcely developed; pedicel-tooth obscure.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelets 4–5 mm long; callus c. 1 mm long, cuneate, subacute to narrowly obtuse at the apex; inferior glume oblong-lanceolate, yellowish-green to light brown or purple, densely villous to hispidulous, rarely glabrous; awn (1)8–20(28) mm long, the column pubescent with tawny hairs.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelets 5–6 mm long, similar to the sessile spikelets in indumentum and colouring, muticous or with a short awn-point up to 1.5 mm long at the apex; callus scarcely developed; pedicel-tooth obscure.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Butt sheaths pubescent. Culms erect; robust; 150-200 cm long; 2-4 mm diam. Leaves cauline. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 2-4 mm long. Leaf-blades 30-60 cm long; 3-8 mm wide; stiff; glaucous. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous; glabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence compound; paniculate; 20-50 cm long; dense. Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; exserted, or embraced at base by subtending leaf. Spatheole lanceolate; 2.5-5 cm long; membranous; brown, or red; glabrous, or hirsute. Peduncle 1.5-5 cm long; pilose above. Racemes 2; paired; deflexed; 2-3 cm long; bearing 5-13 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; ciliate on margins. Rhachis hairs white. Rhachis internodes linear; 1.5-2 mm long. Rhachis internode tip oblique; flat. Raceme-bases flattened; subequal; 1-1.5 mm long; stiffly setose; scariously rimmed, or extended into an oblong appendage; with 0-0.5 mm long appendage. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels linear; flattened; ciliate; tip oblique.
    Spikelets
    Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; on lower raceme 2 in number; 0 in upper raceme; lanceolate; 5-7 mm long; larger than fertile. Basal sterile spikelet glumes glabrous, or villous; ciliate on margins; lower glume muticous. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas, or male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 5-6 mm long; longer than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; glabrous, or pubescent, or villous; acute; muticous, or mucronate, or awned; one glume awned; with 0.5-1.5 mm long awn. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4-5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus cuneate; 1 mm long; pubescent; base obtuse, or acute; attached obliquely.
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; on lower raceme 2 in number; 0 in upper raceme; lanceolate; 5-7 mm long; larger than fertile. Basal sterile spikelet glumes glabrous, or villous; ciliate on margins; lower glume muticous. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas, or male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 5-6 mm long; longer than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; glabrous, or pubescent, or villous; acute; muticous, or mucronate, or awned; one glume awned; with 0.5-1.5 mm long awn. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4-5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus cuneate; 1 mm long; pubescent; base obtuse, or acute; attached obliquely.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; yellow, or dark brown, or purple; without keels; keel-less except near apex. Lower glume surface glabrous, or hispidulous, or villous. Lower glume apex dentate; 2 -fid. Upper glume linear; coriaceous; without keels.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; 1 length of fertile lemma; hyaline; 2 -veined. Fertile lemma linear; membranous; without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; geniculate; (1-)8-20(-28) mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn puberulous, or pubescent; with 0.2-0.4 mm long hairs. Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; cuneate; fleshy. Anthers 3. Stigmas 2.
    Distribution
    Africa: west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and south. Asia-temperate: Arabia. Pacific: north-central.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. WDC.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Cape Provinces, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Hawaii

    Hyparrhenia dregeana (Nees) Stapf ex Stent appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Schimper [138] K000280285 isotype
    Schimper [749], Ethiopia K000280284 paralectotype
    Schimper [1011] K000280283 paralectotype
    Schimper [1052] K000280282 paralectotype
    Schimper [897] K000280281 paralectotype
    Schimper [466] K000280280 paralectotype
    Schimper [1006] K000280279 lectotype
    Zeyher [1799], South Africa K000280212 lectotype
    Burke [427], South Africa K000280207 paralectotype
    Buchanan [222], South Africa K000280210 paralectotype
    Tyson, W. [3105], South Africa K000280208 paralectotype
    Drège, South Africa K000280205
    Drège, South Africa K000280204
    Ecklon [626], South Africa K000280211 paralectotype
    Oates, F., South Africa K000280206
    Oates, F., South Africa K000280209
    Baur, R. [897], South Africa K000280213 paralectotype
    Dowson, W.J. [609], Kenya K000280250
    Drake-Brockman, R.E. [151] K000280278 syntype
    Drake-Brockman, R.E. [152] K000280277 syntype

    First published in Bothalia 1: 249 (1923)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Stent in Bothalia 1: 249 (1923).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0