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  1. Family: Loganiaceae R.Br. ex Mart.
    1. Genus: Strychnos L.
      1. Strychnos cocculoides Baker

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Gabon to Kenya and S. Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Loganiaceae, E. A. Bruce & J. Lewis. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1960

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree 2.5–6.5 m. high or, very rarely, climbing (not spreading), with longitudinally ridged, thick, corky branches; young branchlets often reddish or blackish purple, densely spreading-pubescent or rarely glabrous, usually longitudinally fissured; spines normally present in pairs in the leaf-axils, ± stout, curved at the tip.
    Leaves
    Leaves shortly petiolate; lamina coriaceous, oblong-elliptic to broadly ovate, usually broadest below the middle, 1.8–8 cm. long, 1.4–6 cm. wide (smaller leaves occurring on burnt or grazed shoots), rounded, acute or rarely emarginate at the apex and sometimes apiculate, rounded, subcordate or rarely cuneate at the base, 3–7-nerved at or just above the base (Fig. 3/3), matt or shining above; venation impressed above, prominent and conspicuous beneath, usually fairly softly pubescent, at least on the nerves; tertiary nerves visible beneath.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes terminal, ± dense, usually pubescent (in our area).
    Calyx
    Calyx-lobes narrowly triangular to linear-lanceolate, about 3 mm. long, pubescent on the back, slightly shorter than or rarely equal to the corolla.
    Corolla
    Corolla greenish-white; lobes deltoid, about half the length of the corolla-tube, with dense hairs at the base.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted near the base of the corolla-tube; anthers densely bearded, longer than the filaments.
    Ovary
    Ovary ovoid, inconspicuously bilocular; ovules numerous.
    Fruits
    Fruit globose, 1.6–7 cm. in diameter, with a smooth woody rind, in the fresh state dark green with paler mottlings.
    Seeds
    Seeds up to 2 cm. across, compressed but neither so flattened nor so numerous as in S. spinosa.
    Figures
    Fig. 3/1–6, p. 18.
    Habitat
    Deciduous woodland, often on sand; 400–2000 m.
    Distribution
    T1 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8
    [FZ]

    Loganiaceae, A. J. M. Leeuwenberg. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

    Habit
    Deciduous shrub or small tree, (0·30)1–6(8) m. high, sometimes flowering on one–year shoots with small leaves on old fire–cut stumps.
    Trunk
    Trunk 4–25 cm. in diam., branched from low down; bark pale grey to pale brown, thick, corky, longitudinally ridged, not scaly, nor lenticellate; wood hard, whitish, without bark–islets.
    Branches
    Branches pale to dark brown when dry, more or less fissured and corky by which often irregularly thickened, not lenticellate, often with recurved or sometimes with straight spines, sometimes terminating in a straight spine; branchlets yellow–green and often tinged with red, when living greenish brown, dark brown, reddish–brown, or purplish–brown and often sulcate when dry, pubescent or sometimes glabrous, sometimes (especially when older) fissured like branches.
    Leaves
    Leaves: petiole short, pubescent or less often glabrous, 2–8 mm. long; lamina mat or shining and pale to dark green above, mat and pale beneath, veins often pale on both sides, coriaceous, young thinner and papyraceous when dry, very variable in shape and size, orbicular, ovate, elliptic, or sometimes narrowly elliptic, usually comparatively wider on flowering branches, smaller (as in S. spinosa) on the very spiny young shoots on fire cut stumps, 1–1·5(2–2) times as long as wide, 2–6(10) x 1–5(9) cm., emarginate, rounded to acute and apiculate, or sometimes acuminate at the apex, rounded, subcordate, or cuneate at the base, often slightly bullate or subpapillose, often with hair–pockets in the angles of the main veins beneath, pubescent or less often glabrous on both sides; 1–3 pairs of secondary veins from or from above the base curved along the margin.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal, seemingly umbellate, congested, 2·5–4 x 2·5 cm., mostly many–flowered.
    Flowers
    Flowers 5–merous.
    Calyx
    Sepals pale green, connate at the base, narrowly triangular, equal, subequal, or sometimes unequal, (2)2–5–5 X as long as wide, 2·5 x 0·7–1·3 mm., acuminate or subulate at the apex, not distinctly ciliate, outside pubescent with an even indumentum of mostly erect hairs, inside pubescent at the apex and glabrous at the base or sometimes entirely pubescent, without colleters.
    Corolla
    Corolla when mature 1–2 x as long as the calyx, (3·4)4–5 mm. long, pale green, greenish, white, or greenish–yellow, sparsely pubescent or glabrous outside, inside with a narrow entire white–penicillate corona at the mouth of the tube 1–2 x as long as the lobes, (2)2·5–3 x 2–3 mm., urceolate or campanulate, often somewhat contracted at the throat; lobes triangular, 1–2 x as long as wide, 1·3–2·5 x 1–1·5 mm., acute, erect or suberect.
    Stamens
    Stamens included, inserted 0·4–1 mm. from the base of the corolla; anthers oblong or elliptic, 1·2–1·5 x 0·8–1·2 mm., ciliate all around, cells parallel.
    Pistil
    Pistil pubescent, 1–8–2–8 mm. long; ovary ovoid, broadly ovoid or globose, 0–8–1–3 times as long as wide, 1–1·6 x 1–1·4 mm., acuminate or rounded at the apex, 2–celled; style mostly very short; stigma oblong, large, up to 0·9 mm. long.
    Ovules
    In each cell about (30)50 ovules.
    Fruits
    Fruit large, hard, resembling an orange, globose, yellow or orange, often speckled with green, nearly mature dark green and mottled with pale green, when immature often blue–green, often slightly shining, with granular skin, 6–11 cm. in diam., with about 10–100 seeds. Wall rather thick, 2–5 mm. thick, thickened inside above the pedicel. Pulp edible.
    Seeds
    Seeds ochraceous, flattened, more or less plano–convex, obliquely ovate or elliptic, usually irregularly curved, about 1·2–1·6 times as long as wide, 12 x 8 x 2·5–22 x 15 x 4 mm., slightly rough, very shortly pubescent.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Caprivi Strip, Congo, Gabon, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Strychnos cocculoides Baker appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1974 Sanane, M. [1378], Zambia K000285532
    Jan 1, 1967 Story, R. [4916], Botswana K000197247
    Jan 1, 1967 Welwitsch [4779], Angola K000426669 isotype
    Jan 1, 1967 Welwitsch [4780], Angola K000426670
    Jan 1, 1967 Schlechter, F.R.R. [3630], South Africa K000197246
    Jan 1, 1967 Baum, H. [290], Angola K000426672 isotype
    Jan 1, 1967 Beer, J.S. de [569], Botswana K000285534
    White, F. [1874], Zambia 22119.000
    Long, D.G. [610], Botswana K000285533
    Smith, P.A. [3436], Botswana K000285535
    Smith, P.A. [1348], Botswana K000285536
    Harris, T. [569], Mozambique K000614161
    Barbosa, G. [4406], Mozambique K000196053
    Barbosa, G., Mozambique K000196054
    Timberlake, J. [s.n.], Malawi K000614835

    Bibliography

    First published in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1895: 98 (1895)

    Accepted by

    • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. & Bamps, P. (1979). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Loganiaceae: 1-149. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Bruce, E.A. & Lewis, J. (1960). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Loganiaceae: 1-47.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. & Bamps, P. (1979). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Loganiaceae: 1-149. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • E. A. Bruce in Kew Bulletin 1955: 38 (1955).
    • Duvign. in Bulletin de la Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique 85: 20, fig. 6a (1952).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 275 (1949).
    • Duvign. in Lejeunia 13: 114 (1949).
    • Baker in Flora of Tropical Africa 4 (1): 533 (1903).
    • Baker in Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Kew 1895: 98 (1895).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0