1. Family: Loganiaceae R.Br. ex Mart.
    1. Genus: Strychnos L.
      1. Strychnos pungens Soler.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Congo to Tanzania and Northern Prov.

    [FZ]

    Loganiaceae, A. J. M. Leeuwenberg. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

    Habit
    Deciduous tree or shrub (0·30)2–8(16) m. high.
    Trunk
    Trunk 10–20 cm. in diam. or more.
    Bark
    Bark grey or brown, rough, closely and shallowly reticulate–, not corky, smooth and grey higher up or in young trees; inner bark yellow; wood yellowish, with large bark–islets.
    Branches
    Branches pale to dark brown, conspicuously and densely lenticellate, not sulcate; branchlets glabrous or occasionally with few hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves: petiole short, glabrous, 1–4 mm. long; lamina shining and dark green above, hardly or not paler and less shining beneath, coriaceous, rigid, elliptic, narrowly elliptic, obovate, or occasionally orbicular, (1)2–4(5) x as long as wide, (2)3–8(10) x 1–3·5(4·5) cm., acute or rounded and sharply pointed at the apex, cuneate or rounded at the base, glabrous on both sides or occasionally partly pubescent beneath; one pair of secondary veins from or from above the base curved along the margin and often a faint submarginal pair; tertiary venation reticulate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary or ramiflorous, mostly several together, usually very short and about 0–25 x as long as the leaves, 1 x 1–2 x 2(4 x 5) cm., usually congested and subsessile, rarely lax.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels very short.
    Flowers
    Flowers 5–merous.
    Calyx
    Sepals green, nearly free, subequal, the inner slightly smaller, ovate, broadly ovate, or sometimes orbicular, 1–1·5 x as long as wide, 2·4 x 2·3 mm., acute, obtuse, or rounded at the mostly slightly keeled apex, conspicuously ciliate, glabrous on both sides or inside minutely appressed–pubescent at the base, without colleters.
    Corolla
    Corolla in the mature bud 2·4–3·2 x as long as the calyx, 7–9·5 mm. long, greenish–creamy, or –yellow, glabrous outside, inside with a brush–like ring of white lanate hairs in the throat and just on the base of the lobes; tube cylindrical or nearly so, 1·4–2 x as long as the calyx, 1–1·7 x as long as the lobes, 4–5·5 mm. long, 1·5–3 mm. wide at the base, 2–3·5 mm. at the throat; lobes thick, narrowly triangular, 2–2·7 x as long as wide, 3–4 x 1·3–2 mm., acute, spreading.
    Stamens
    Stamens slightly exserted; filaments 0·1–0·2 x as long as the anthers, inserted at the mouth of the corolla tube, glabrous; anthers oblong, 1–2 x 0·5–1 mm., glabrous.
    Pistil
    Pistil pilose in the middle, 5–7·5 mm. long; ovary ovoid or oblong, 1–3 x 0·7–2 mm., 2–celled, apically pilose, often with a disk–like base; style thick, 2·5–4·5 mm. long, at the base hairy like the ovary at the apex; stigma capitate.
    Ovules
    In each cell 25–60 ovules.
    Fruits
    Fruit orange or yellow, nearly mature bluish–green, large, hard, globose, 5–12(15) cm. in diam., with about 20–100 seeds, with somewhat granular skin, slightly shining. Wall thick, (2)4–6 mm. thick, thicker above pedicel, woody when dry. Pulp sweet–tasting.
    Seeds
    Seeds ochraceous, flattened, more or less plano–convex, obliquely ovate, elliptic, or trullate, usually irregularly curved, 20–24 x 12–7 x 5–10 mm., with thick very short erect hairs, rather rough.
    [FTEA]

    Loganiaceae, E. A. Bruce & J. Lewis. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1960

    Habit
    Shrub or slender much-branched small tree, 3–8 m. high, with a ± dense stiff growth, glabrous except for the inflorescence; branches unarmed, with rough grey or brown bark, often longitudinally split or corky; young branchlets usually pale brown, conspicuously lenticellate.
    Leaves
    Leaves subsessile, coriaceous, rigid, narrowly oblong-lanceolate, elliptic or obovate, 4–8 cm. long, 1–4 cm. wide, acute or subacute and conspicuously pungent, cuneate or rounded at the base, shining above; nerves 3 (or 5) from or just above the base; tertiary venation conspicuous.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes usually ± dense and shorter than the leaves, rarely lax.
    Calyx
    Calyx-lobes ovate, acute, ciliate, about 2.5 mm. long.
    Corolla
    Corolla greenish-cream-coloured; tube 3–4 mm. long, with dense hairs forming a ring at the throat; lobes oblong, 2–3 mm. long.
    Anthers
    Anthers sessile, inserted at mouth of corolla, exserted.
    Pistil
    Ovary subglobose; style long; ovules numerous.
    Fruits
    Fruit globose, 5–9 cm. in diameter; rind woody, yellow.
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, rather thick, tetrahedral, about 2 cm. long, embedded in sweet-tasting pulp.
    Habitat
    i>Brachystegia woodland; 900–1350 m.
    Distribution
    T4 T5 T8

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Caprivi Strip, Congo, Malawi, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Strychnos pungens Soler. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1967 Welwitsch [4778b], Angola K000426785
    Jan 1, 1967 Welwitsch [4778], Angola K000426786 paratype
    Jan 1, 1967 Fischer [374], Tanzania K000426677 lectotype
    Jan 1, 1967 Sapin, A. [s.n.], Congo, DRC K000426617 isotype
    Jan 1, 1967 Yalala, A.M. [171], Botswana K000489690
    Jan 1, 1967 Marques, S. [13], Angola K000426784 holotype
    White, F. [1873], Zambia 22053.000
    Smith, P.A. [1351], Botswana K000489692
    Hansen, O.J. [3487], Botswana K000489691

    First published in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 17: 554 (1893)

    Accepted by

    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. & Bamps, P. (1979). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Loganiaceae: 1-149. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Bruce, E.A. & Lewis, J. (1960). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Loganiaceae: 1-47.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. & Bamps, P. (1979). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Loganiaceae: 1-149. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Bruce & Lewis in Kew Bulletin 1956: 268 (1956).
    • Duvign. in Bulletin de la Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique 85: 25 (1952).
    • Baker in Flora of Tropical Africa 4 (1): 530 (1903).
    • Gilg. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 310 (1895).
    • Solered. in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 17: 554 (1893).
    • Solered. in A. Engler & K. Prantl, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 4 (2): 40 (1892).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0