1. Family: Proteaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Protea L.
      1. Protea madiensis Oliv.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Nigeria to Ethiopia and S. Tropical Africa.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Type
    Type from Uganda.
    Habit
    Branching shrub or small tree 1–4(5) m high, with main stem up to c. 12 cm thick
    Branches
    Branches sometimes densely pubescent with brownish hairs when very young, the epidermis usually dark purplish and glabrescent on mature young branches and flaking off older branches to expose the rusty red cortex
    Leaves
    Leaves up to 21 × 11 cm, 1.5–5.5 times as long as broad, very variable in shape, from narrowly elliptic or narrowly lanceolate to broadly elliptic or broadly ovate or broadly obovate, broadest towards the base in north tropical Africa but usually broadest towards the apex in south tropical Africa, the narrower leaves gradually cuneate to the base but broader leaves usually abruptly contracted to a short-cuneate base and sometimes almost forming a short petiole, the apex usually subacute in narrow leaves and broadly rounded in broader leaves; glabrous throughout or sometimes densely pubescent with longish appressed hairs when very young and glabrescent later, or occasionally with appressed hairs persisting near the midrib towards the base
    Bracts
    Middle bracts 2.5–4 × (1.2)1.4–2.2(2.5) cm, rounded to subacute, ciliate or glabrous on the margins, the surface glabrous or sometimes sericeous in the lower half (then mostly hidden by outer bracts) or occasionally sericeous for most of their length, brown or the tip often pink; innermost bracts (4.5)5.5–7 × (0.6)0.8–1.3 cm, linear-oblong to linear-spathulate and usually longitudinally inrolled, exceeding the flowers, like the middle bracts in indumentum, creamy-white with a usually pinkish tip
    Flowers
    Flowers (3)4–5.5(6) cm long, creamy-white Heads (8)10–15 cm diameter, or up to 17 cm when bracts are fully extended
    Perianth
    Perianth base and claw villous; limb (10)11–16(17) mm long, glabrous or rarely with a few hairs on the back of the 3 fused segments.
    Note
    This widespread species has large heads and broad leaves and may be confused in the field with P. angolensis var. divaricata. It may be readily distinguished from the latter in the Flora area by its glabrous perianth limb and villous claw contrasting with the villous limb and glabrous claw in P. angolensis var. divaricata. Subsp. madiensis extends from S Nigeria and Ethiopia southwards to Angola and the Flora Zambesiaca area, where it has not been recorded south of the Zambezi R. Often conspicuous in montane grassland up to 2165 m or more, sometimes in miombo woodland at intermediate altitudes, and descending to 480 m in dry woodland on the lakeshore plain of Lake Malawi. Recorded from chipya woodland with Syzygium, etc. in Zambia. The above description is of subsp. madiensis. Subsp. occidentalis (Beard) Chisumpa & Brummitt occurs in West Africa from Sierra Leone to Cameroon, differing from subsp. madiensis in having a villous corolla limb and consistently sericeous bracts. Within subsp. madiensis there is a wide range of leaf shape; in the Flora Zambesiaca area the leaves are usually broadest in the lower half, whereas further north in East Africa they are usually broadest in the upper half.
    Distribution
    Zambia Mozambique Malawi ZAM N, ZAM W, ZAM C, ZAM E, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N
    [FTEA]

    Proteaceae, R.K. Brummitt & Serena K. Marner. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1993

    Habit
    Branching shrub or small tree 1-4(-5) m. high, with main stem up to 12 cm. thick.
    Branches
    Branches sometimes densely pubescent when very young, the epidermis usually dark purple and glabrescent on mature young branches and flaking off to expose the rusty-red cortex when older.
    Leaves
    Leaves very variable in shape, from narrowly elliptic or narrowly lanceolate to broadly elliptic or broadly ovate, up to 21 × 11 cm., 1.5-5.5 times as long as broad, narrower leaves gradually cuneate to the base but broader leaves usually abruptly contracted to a shortly cuneate base and sometimes subpetiolate, usually subacute at the apex in narrow leaves but rounded in broader leaves, glabrous throughout or sometimes densely pubescent with longish appressed hairs when very young, occasionally with appressed hairs persisting near the base of the midrib.
    Inflorescences
    Heads (8-) 10-15 cm. in diameter, or up to 17 cm. when bracts are fully extended.
    Bracts
    Middle bracts 2.5-4 × (1.2-)1.4-2.2(-2.5) cm., rounded to subacute, ciliate or not on margins, the surface glabrous to sericeous, brown or the tip often pink; innermost bracts linear-oblong to linear-spathulate and usually longitudinally inrolled, (4.5-)5.5-7 × (0.6-)0.8-1.3 cm., exceeding the flowers, like the middle bracts in indumentum, creamy white with a pinkish tip.
    Flowers
    Flowers (3-)4-5.5(-6) cm., creamy white; perianth-base and claw villous; limb (10-)11-16(-17) mm., glabrous or rarely with a few hairs or (W. Africa only) villous.
    [FWTA]

    Proteaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    Shrub, or tree, to 10 ft. high
    Flowers
    Flowers white
    Bracts
    The bracts rose-pink outside.
    [FWTA]

    Proteaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    Shrub, to 4 ft. high
    Flowers
    Flowers white
    Bracts
    Silvery bracts.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre

    Protea madiensis Oliv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1982 Lely, H.V. [381], Nigeria K000423516 holotype
    Jan 1, 1982 Elliott, W.R. [9], Nigeria K000423515 holotype
    Aug 1, 1958 Speke [673], Uganda K000423554 holotype
    Troupin, G. [3054], Rwanda 18150.000
    Keay, R.W.J. [FHI 28501], Cameroon K000423513

    First published in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 29: 143 (1875)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Brummitt, R.K. & Marner, S.K. (1993). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Proteaceae: 1-30.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Chev. Fl. Viv. 1: 349.
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 204
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • White, Dowsett-Lemaire & Chapman, Evergr. For. Fl. Malawi: 439 (2001).
    • Fl. Ethiopia 2, 1: 438 (2000).
    • F.T.E.A., Proteaceae: 10 (1993).
    • F.T.E.A., Proteaceae: 12, fig. 2 (1993). TAB. 14.
    • Beard, Proteas Trop. Africa: 40, t. 4, photo. (1993).
    • Kew Bull. 42: 818 (1987).
    • Wye Coll. Malawi Proj. Rep.: 71 (1973).
    • Fanshawe, Check List Woody Pl. Zambia Showing Distrib.: 35 (1973).
    • Richards & Morony, Check List Fl. Mbala Distr.: 28 (1969).
    • J. S. African Bot. 30: 156 (1964).
    • Kirkia 3: 156 (1963).
    • White, For. Fl. Northern Rhodesia: 40 (1962).
    • Topham, Check List For. Trees Shrubs Nyasaland Prot.: 81 (1958).
    • Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 9: 61 (1954).
    • F.C.B. 1: 245 (1948).
    • Bull. Jard. Bot. État 17: 176 (1944)
    • De Wildeman, Pl. Bequaert. 2: 7 (1923).
    • Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Africa 5: 341 (1916).
    • Engler, Pflanzenw. Afrikas [Veg. Erde 9] 3, 1: 68 (1915).
    • R.E. Fries, Wiss. Ergebn. Schwed. Rhod.-Kongo-Exped.: 20, photo. (1914).
    • F.T.A. 6, 1: 204 (1910).
    • Trans. Linn. Soc., London 29: 143, t. 92 (1875).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Beard, Proteas Trop. Afr.: 40, t. 4 (1993).
    • Chisumpa & Brummitt in Kew Bulletin 42: 816 (1987).
    • Troupin, Fl. Pl. Lign. Rwanda: 505 (1982).
    • Beard in Kirkia 3: 156 (1963).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 40 (1962).
    • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 322 (1952).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1: 154 (1950).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 463 (1949).
    • Hauman in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 1: 245 (1948).
    • Hauman in Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l'État a Bruxelles 17: 176 (1944)
    • De Wild., Pl. Bequaert. 2: 7 (1923).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(1): 68 (1915).
    • R.E. Fr., Wiss. Ergebn. Schwed. Rhod.-Kongo-Exped. 1911-12: 20, t. 1/3, photo. (1914).
    • Bak. & C.H. Wright in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 204 (1910).
    • Engl. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 165 (1895).
    • Oliv. in Trans. Linn. Soc, Bot. 29:143, t. 92 (1875).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0