1. Family: Symplocaceae Desf.
    1. Genus: Symplocos Jacq.
      1. Symplocos inopinata Aranha

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Brazil (Bahia).


    Aranha Filho, J.L.M., Fritsch, P.W., Almeda, F. et al. 2013. Kew Bulletin 68: 625. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-013-9479-4

    Type: Brazil, Bahia, Município Rio do Pires, Garimpo das Almas (Cristal), 1400 m, 13°54'S, 42°29'W, 24 July 1993, fr., Ganev 1947 (holotype SPF!; isotypes HUEFS!, K!, NY).
    Shrub to tree (0.5 –) 2 – 7 m tall
    Branchlets black, greenish black, greenish brown or rarely greenish, not winged, sinuate in cross section, glabrous
    Leaves distributed evenly along branchlet, patent or slightly ascending; petiole (8 –) 10 – 20 mm long, abaxially flat or rounded, adaxially flat or concave, glabrous; leaf blade elliptic, broadly elliptic, or rarely slightly obovate, 4.5 – 9.5 × 2 – 4 cm, coriaceous, both sides glabrous, midvein flat to slightly elevated adaxially, base attenuate or cuneate, margin entire or inconspicuously crenulate on distal half, marginal glands absent or present only on distal half, persistent or caducous, if caducous then scars visible, apex acute, acute-retuse, acute-obtuse or obtuse-acuminate, acumen (when present) 2 – 8 mm long, apical gland caducous or less often persistent
    Inflorescence axillary; peduncle visible, not obscured by bracts, glabrous; bracts numerous, strongly imbricate, clasping peduncle base, 0.5 – 3 × 0.8 – 1.8 mm, coriaceous to membranaceous, caducous but usually several retained at peduncle base, glabrous, margin sparsely to densely ciliolate, apical gland present at least in some proximal bracts, proximal bracts rotund or ovate, apex emarginate, retuse or obtuse, distal bracts elliptic or deltoid, apex obtuse, retuse or subacute Male inflorescence racemose, botryoid or occasionally spicate, 3- to 22-flowered, 6 – 29 mm long; peduncle 3 – 25 mm long
    Pedicel absent or up to 6 mm long; bracteoles deltoid, ovate or elliptic, flat or keeled, 0.4 – 2.5 × 0.2 – 1.5 mm, membranaceous, caducous or rarely persistent, glabrous, margin ciliolate, eglandular or sparsely glandular, apex nearly obtuse or acute
    Flower 3 – 4.5 mm long; hypanthium funnelform, glabrous Pistillate flower: hypanthium 0.9 – 1.5 mm long; staminodes 8 to 16, 0.5 – 2 mm long, filaments distinct or connate up to 0.2 mm, anthers 0.25 – 0.4 × 0.25 – 0.35 mm producing malformed and nonviable pollen; ovary with 1 to 4 ovules per locule, 1 to 2 developed and 0 to 2 reduced in size, developed ovules pendulous, 0.6 – 1.2 mm long, style 1 – 1.7 mm long, stigma nearly capitate; disc conical or subconical in longitudinal view, apex subacute, 0.8 – 1 mm diam- Drupe ellipsoid or subovoid, 5 – 6.5 × 3 – 3.7 mm, glabrous, apex 1.5 – 2 mm diam.; fruiting calyx lobes erect, not exceeding disc, 0.2 – 0.5 (– 0.6) × 0.5 – 1.2 mm; disc visible, rounded or broadly conical, glabrous; endocarp 0.05 – 0.1 (– 0.2) mm thick Staminate flower: hypanthium 0.3 – 1 mm long; stamens (21 to) 23 to 35, 0.5 – 3.5 mm long, filaments distinct or connate up to 0.7 mm, anthers 0.3 – 0.45 × 0.3 – 0.4 mm; ovary aseptate, ovules absent, style absent or rarely present, if present then erect, undivided, up to 1 mm long, stigma absent; disc concave, subconical or rarely flattened in longitudinal view, if subconical then apex truncate, 0.9 – 1.5 mm diam- Female inflorescence racemose, botryoid or spicate, 5- to 17-flowered, 8.5 – 44 mm long; peduncle 5.5 – 40 mm long
    Calyx lobes 5, erect, ovate, broadly ovate or nearly deltoid, 0.4 – 0.8 × 0.4 – 1.5 mm, glabrous, margin eglandular and sparsely to densely ciliolate or rarely eciliolate, apex subacute, rounded or obtuse
    Corolla whitish or greenish white, tube 0.1 – 0.4 mm long, lobes 5 – 6, patent to slightly ascending, elliptic or ovate, (1.5 –) 2 – 3.3 × 0.9 – 2.5 mm, glabrous, eciliolate to sparsely ciliolate
    Stamens and staminodes: filaments distinctly or inconspicuously connate, whitish, ± filiform, glabrous; anthers basifixed, yellowish, globose to ellipsoid
    Disc present at ovary apex, 5-lobed or nearly annular in transverse view, smooth to slightly knobby, glabrous
    Seed sub-orbicular in cross section, 4 – 5.3 mm long
    Shrub to tree, glabrous throughout. Petioles (8 –) 10 – 20 mm long. Leaf margin eglandular or, if glandular, then glands (or their scars if caducous) only on distal half. Corolla lobes 5 or 6, patent to slightly ascending. Drupe 5 – 6.5 × 3 – 3.7 mm. Fruiting calyx lobes not exceeding disc. Endocarp 0.05 – 0.1 (– 0.2) mm thick.

    Symplocos inopinata is distinguished from other species of Symplocos sect. Hopea by the combination of petioles (8 –) 10 – 20 mm long with at least some on each individual > 10 mm, eglandular leaf margin or, if glands present, glands or gland scars distributed only on the distal half of the margin, disc in longitudinal view concave, subconical or rarely flattened in the staminate flower and conical or subconical in the pistillate flower, drupe 5 – 6.5 × 3 – 3.7 mm, fruiting calyx lobes 0.2 – 0.5 (– 0.6) mm long and not exceeding the disc in length, and endocarp 0.05 – 0.1 (– 0.2) mm thick.

    The epithet “inopinata” is Latin for “unexpected”.

    Symplocos oblongifolia is one of the most widespread and polymorphic species of Symplocos in Brazil (Aranha Filho 2008). Like S. inopinata, it is found in the southern portion of Chapada Diamantina. It can be distinguished from S. inopinata by pistillate flowers with a flattened to rarely short-cylindrical disc in longitudinal view (vs conical or subconical in S. inopinata), drupe (8 –) 8.5 – 14 mm long (vs 5 – 6.5 mm long) with an endocarp 0.4 – 0.8 mm thick (vs 0.05 – 0.1 [– 0.2] mm thick), and fruiting calyx lobes 0.5 – 1.5 mm long (vs 0.2 – 0.5 [– 0.6] mm long). Moreover, specimens of S. oblongifolia collected in Chapada Diamantina have petioles 3 – 8 mm long or rarely reaching 10 mm, whereas those of S. inopinata consistently have at least a few petioles > 10 mm long.

    In overall morphology, Symplocos inopinata resembles S. rhamnifolia A. DC. and S. oblongifoliaCasar. (long known as S. lanceolata A. DC.). Like S. inopinata, S. rhamnifolia grows in gallery forest and in humid soils, and is endemic to Chapada Diamantina (although limited to the northern portion). It can be differentiated from S. inopinata by consistently glandular leaf margins, with glands or gland scars present on the distal ¾ (vs eglandular, or glands or gland scars present only on the distal half) and fruiting calyx lobes always exceeding the disc (vs not exceeding the disc). In addition, S. rhamnifolia has petioles (3 –) 4 – 8 (– 10) mm long (vs [8 –] 10 – 20 mm long, but always some individuals > 10 mm long), disc in longitudinal view always flattened in the staminate flowers (vs concave, subconical or rarely flattened), and drupe 3.5 – 5.3 mm wide (vs 3 – 3.7 mm wide).

    The species is restricted to the southern part of Chapada Diamantina in the state of Bahia.
    Symplocos inopinata typically occurs in gallery forest, ombrophilous forest, or campo rupestre (rocky fields) mixed with ombrophilous forest but can also be found in rock outcrops where it thrives in sandy and humid soil, at 1000 – 1750 m elevation or rarely below 1000 m.
    Due to its estimated range of less than 5000 km2 and habitat loss, we categorise Symplocos inopinata as endangered (EN: B1b[iii]).
    Flowering specimens of Symplocos inopinata were collected from March through August and fruiting specimens from April through July.


    Native to:

    Brazil Northeast

    Symplocos inopinata Aranha appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Kew Bull. 68: 625 (2013)


    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.


    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0