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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum zanzibarense Vatke

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Kenya to KwaZulu-Natal.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Type
    Type from Tanzania.
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: Tanzania, Zanzibar, Kidoti, Hildebrandt 988 (BM!, lecto., designated here [best material]; K!, W, isolecto.)
    General
    Prostrate or climbing subshrub to 4 m, armed; young stems stellate-pubescent, trichomes porrect, translucent to orange-brown, sessile or stalked, stalks up to 0.1 mm, rays 7–8, 0.1–0.15 mm, midpoints short or reduced to glands; prickles straight or curved, 2–4 mm long, 0.8–2 mm wide at base, round or flattened
    Leaves
    Leaf blades drying usually concolorous, yellow-green to red-green, ovate to lanceolate, 3–14 × 1.5–7.5 cm, 2.5–3 times longer than wide, base cuneate, often unequal or oblique, margin lobed, sometimes entire, lobes 2–3 on each side, up to 15 mm long, rounded to deltate (obovate), apically rounded to obtuse, extending up to 1/2(–2/3) of the distance to the midvein; apex acute to obtuse; stellate-pubescent to glabrescent on both sides, trichomes on abaxial surface porrect, stalked, stalks to 0.1 mm, rays (4–)6–8, 0.1–0.2 mm, midpoints short or reduced to glands, adaxially glabrescent, rays reduced to (2–)4–8, often less than 0.1 mm long, sometimes rays almost invisible with only brown globular glands seen; primary veins 4–6 pairs; petiole 0.5–4 cm, 1/3–1/6 of the leaf length
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences not branched, 2–5 cm long, with 2–10 flowers; peduncle 0–5 mm long; rachis 0–2.5 cm long; peduncle and rachis usually unarmed; pedicels 0.3–0.7 cm long, in fruit 1.2–1.8 cm long, usually unarmed
    Flowers
    Flowers perfect, 4–5-merous
    Calyx
    Calyx 2–4 mm long, lobes deltate, 0.5–1.5 mm long, acute to acuminate, usually unarmed. Corolla white to mauve, 1.5–2 cm in diameter, lobed for ± 4/5 of its length, lobes narrowly ovate to narrowly deltate or oblong, 6–8(–12) × 1.5–2 mm
    Stamens
    Stamens equal; anthers 4–6.5 mm
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous or with minute simple hairs; style 8–12 mm long
    Fruits
    Berries 1–4(–10) per infructescence, red at maturity, spherical, 8–14 mm in diameter
    Seeds
    Seeds 1.8–2.5 × 1.5–2.3 mm
    Figures
    Fig 22, p 187
    Ecology
    Moist or dry forest, forest edges, rocky outcrops, on sand or sandy loam; 0–700 m
    Note
    Solanum zanzibarense can be recognised by its small flowers with long narrow corolla lobes, scrambling or climbing habit, slightly recurved or sometimes straight prickles over 2 mm long, and trichomes with very short stalks and short midpoints. This species includes a wide range of interbreeding populations across coastal East Africa from Kenya to Mozambique, encompassing a variety of leaf shapes and prickle morphologies, stalkedtrichome lobed-leaved populations from Zanzibar ( S. zanzibarense sensu stricto) and glabrescent large-leaved populations from Kenyan and Tanzanian coast (often annotated as S. vagans). None of the distinguishing characters can alone separate all specimens, but the combination of leaf size and shape, trichome stalk length, calyx lobe shape and flower size correlates with geographical distribution. Like many similar climbing spiny Solanum species treated here, S. zanzibarense occurs sporadically over a large geographical area but can be difficult to find outside its flowering season.
    Distribution
    Range: Mozambique Flora districts: K7 T6 T8 Z

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Mozambique, Tanzania

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum zanzibarense Vatke appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 1, 2010 Barbosa, L.A.G. [21722], Mozambique K000441839
    Oct 1, 2010 Torre, A.R. [15047], Mozambique K000441835
    Oct 1, 2010 Torre, A.R. [6287], Mozambique K000441837
    Oct 1, 2010 Torre, A.R. [5577], Mozambique K000441838
    Apr 1, 2010 Vaughan, J.H. [1760], Tanzania K000441597
    Nov 22, 1931 Hildebrandt, J.M. [988], Tanzania K000413975 Unknown type material
    Jul 2, 1905 Frontier-Tanzania [1398], Tanzania K000441616
    Jun 30, 1905 Greenway, P.J. [2592], Tanzania K000441598
    Jun 30, 1905 Tanner, R.E.S. [3729], Tanzania K000441599
    Jun 30, 1905 Tanner, R.E.S. [1956], Tanzania K000441602
    Jun 30, 1905 Tanner, R.E.S. [1956], Tanzania K000441632
    Jun 30, 1905 Harris, B.J. [1627], Tanzania K000441613
    Jun 30, 1905 Bryce, J.M. [33], Tanzania K000441606
    Jun 30, 1905 Semsei, S.R. [3801], Tanzania K000441603
    Jun 30, 1905 Semsei, S.R. [5714], Tanzania K000441611
    Jun 30, 1905 Bidgood, S. [1360], Tanzania K000441601
    Jun 30, 1905 Bidgood, S. [2010], Tanzania K000441607
    Jun 30, 1905 Mwasumbi, L.B. [10529], Tanzania K000441594
    Jun 30, 1905 Mwasumbi, L.B. [10605], Tanzania K000441612
    Jun 30, 1905 Luke, W.R.Q. [3685], Tanzania K000441604
    Jun 30, 1905 Abdallah, R. [95/79], Tanzania K000441610
    Jun 30, 1905 Batty, M. [107], Tanzania K000441595
    Jun 30, 1905 Polhill, R.M. [5160], Tanzania K000441600
    Jun 30, 1905 Schlieben, H.J. [5800], Tanzania K000441608
    Jun 30, 1905 Groenendijk, E.M.C. [921], Mozambique K000441836
    Jun 30, 1905 Musk, H. [115], Tanzania K000441614
    Jun 30, 1905 Frontier-Tanzania [558], Tanzania K000441609
    Jun 30, 1905 Richards, H.M. Mrs [17958], Tanzania K000441596
    Jun 30, 1905 Gomes_e_Sousa, A.F. [4361], Mozambique K000441840
    Polhill, R. [850], Kenya K001158343
    Graham, R.M. [2343], Kenya K001158341
    Robertson, S.A. [7597], Kenya K001158331
    Verdcourt [3931], Kenya K001158340
    Verdcourt [1912], Kenya K001158344
    Ruffo [2177], Tanzania K001158335
    Luke [2949], Kenya K001158347
    Kisena [507], Tanzania K001158334
    Drummond, R.B. [3897], Kenya K001158338
    Drummond, R.B. [3897], Kenya K001158345
    Musyoki, B.M. [1005], Kenya K001158869
    s.coll [EA12245], Kenya K001158342
    s.coll [s.n.] K001158348
    Graham, R.l. [2243], Kenya K001158339
    MacNaughtan, G. [187], Kenya K001158346
    Drummond, R.B. [3897], Kenya Solanum vagans 11198.000

    Bibliography

    First published in Linnaea 43: 326 (1882)

    Accepted by

    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Beentje, Kenya Trees, Shrubs & Lianas: 583 (1994).
    • Gentes Herb. 12: 225 (1984).
    • Brenan & Greenway, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 584 (1949).
    • Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 16: 115 (1923).
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 230 (1906).
    • Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C: 353 (1895).
    • Linnaea 43: 326 (1882).

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • F.Z. 8(4): 99 (2005).
    • K.T.S.L.: 583 (1994)
    • T.T.C.L.: 584 (1949)
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 230 (1906)
    • Linnaea 43: 326 (1882)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0