1. Family: Cannabaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Trema Lour.
      1. Trema orientale (L.) Blume

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [FZ]

    Ulmaceae, C. M. Wilmot-Dear. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. 1991

    Habit
    Shrub or small to medium tree up to 12 m. tall, deciduous; branches ± spreading; bark smooth, grey, lenticels conspicuous; twigs sparsely to densely pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves (4.5)6–11 x (1.5)2.2x5 cm. (juvenile leaves up to 15 x 9 cm.), attenuate-ovate to ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate; apex acuminate to attenuate; base rounded to cordate, ± asymmetric; margin evenly closely serrate from near the base; lamina ± scabrid, sparsely stiff-hairy (rarely glabrescent) above, ± densely pubescent to tomentose below, ± strongly 3-nerved from the base, midrib and lateral veins grooved above, prominent below; petiole 8–10( 13) mm. long; stipules 4–7 mm. long, lanceolate, pubescent, caducous.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes 5–10 mm. long, many flowered; flowers mostly male with a few female (bisexual) flowers at the top, flowers greenish-cream; subtending bracts c. 1 mm. long, triangular; pedicels short or absent; sepals 1–1.5(2) x 0.5 mm.
    Pistil
    Ovary pubescent, 1–1.5 mm. long; styles 0.5–1.2 mm. long, inrolled or divaricate, usually persistent.
    Fruits
    Fruit drupaceous, purple or black, ovoid-globose, (2)3.5(4) mm. in diam. when dried, glabrous.
    [FTEA]

    Ulmaceae, R. M. Polhill. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1966

    Habit
    Shrub, small or medium sized monoecious or rarely dioecious tree, up to 12 m. tall, with smooth grey bark.
    Twigs
    Twigs pubescent to tomentose.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades oblong-lanceolate to attenuate-ovate, (2–)7.5–14 cm. long, (l.2–)2.3– 7.2 cm. wide, acuminate, rounded to cordate at the base, evenly and closely serrate from near the base, glabrous to puberulous above, pubescent to tomentose beneath, scabrous, penninerved; petiole 7–12(–15) mm. long.
    Stipules
    Stipules lanceolate, 4–7 mm. long, pubescent, caducous.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes usually congested, ± 1 cm. long in flower, up to 2 cm. in fruit, many-flowered, mostly ♂, with a few ♀(hermaphrodite) flowers at the top.
    Calyx
    Calyx-tube short; lobes 5, 1–2 mm. long, pubescent.
    Pistil
    Ovary pubescent; styles inrolled or divaricate, 0.5–1 mm. long, usually persistent.
    Fruits
    Drupes black, thinly fleshy, ovoid to globose, 3–5 mm. long when dried, glabrous.
    Figures
    Fig. 3.
    Habitat
    Margins of lowland and upland rain-forest, often a pioneer in clearings, also riverine forest; 0–2100 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 throughout Africa south of the Sahara, Madagascar, Mascarene Is. and tropical Asia

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Djibouti, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Rwanda, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Mauritius, Réunion

    Trema orientale (L.) Blume appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 2010 Ahmad Tamin [98876], Sabah K000612021
    Oct 1, 2005 Nana felicite [33], Cameroon K000338099
    Aug 1, 2005 Harvey, Y.B. [200], Cameroon K000199804
    Aug 1, 2005 Darbyshire, I. [180], Cameroon K000199805
    Feb 17, 2005 Andrianantoanina, O. [261], Madagascar K000228319
    Nov 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [7590], Cameroon K000197967
    Nov 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [8973], Cameroon K000197974
    Nov 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [7264], Cameroon K000197975
    Nov 1, 2003 Cable, S. [2902], Cameroon K000197971
    Nov 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [1463], Cameroon K000197968
    Nov 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [1639], Cameroon K000197970
    Nov 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [4370], Cameroon K000197972
    Nov 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [4265], Cameroon K000746155
    Nov 1, 2003 Ryan, P. [405], Cameroon K000197973
    Nov 1, 2003 Pollard, B.J. [438], Cameroon K000746156
    Nov 1, 2003 Ghogue, J.-P. [16], Cameroon K000197969
    Nov 1, 2003 Ghogue, J.-P. [1056], Cameroon K000746157
    Feb 1, 1999 Cheek, M. [8608], Cameroon K000339628
    Feb 1, 1999 Cable, S. [2999], Cameroon K000339627
    Feb 1, 1999 Etuge, M. [2222], Cameroon K000339626
    Feb 1, 1999 Zapfack, L. [762], Cameroon K000339625
    Sep 1, 1998 Schimper [195], Ethiopia K000243065
    Sep 1, 1998 Krauss [41], KwaZulu-Natal K000243072 lectotype
    Sep 1, 1998 Krauss [41], KwaZulu-Natal K000243073 Unknown type material
    Sep 1, 1998 Krauss [354], KwaZulu-Natal K000243075 isolectotype
    Sep 1, 1998 Krauss [354], KwaZulu-Natal K000243074 lectotype
    May 1, 1997 Munyenyembe, P. [804], Cameroon K000339629
    Jan 1, 1995 Cheek, M. [5780], Cameroon K000011473
    Jan 1, 1995 Baker, W.J. [295], Cameroon K000011474
    Jan 1, 1982 Schimper [2182], Ethiopia K000243068
    Apr 1, 1971 Wallich, N. [3689] K000852866
    Apr 1, 1971 Wallich, N. [3689] K000852867
    Apr 1, 1971 Roxburgh, W. [s.n.], India K000852868
    Apr 1, 1971 Beechey, F.W. [16], Ogasawara-shoto K000852875
    Jan 1, 1971 Thomson, T. [938], India K000852864
    Jan 1, 1971 s.coll. [s.n.], Jawa K000852855 isotype
    Jul 15, 1926 Wight, R. [s.n.], India K000852865 Unknown type material
    Milne-Redhead, E. [7599], Tanzania 31248.000
    Troupin, G., Congo 31113.000
    Schimper [1162], Ethiopia K000243067
    Schimper [1162], Ethiopia K000243066
    Madagascar K000243069
    Madagascar K000243070 Unknown type material
    KwaZulu-Natal K000243077
    Drege [s.n.], KwaZulu-Natal K000243076
    Commerson [709], Mauritius K000243071 syntype
    Harris, T. [110], Mozambique K000545093
    Patel, H. [s.n.], Mozambique K000614356
    Beechey, F.W. [s.n.], Ogasawara-shoto K000852876
    Vogel [138], Sierra Leone Trema guineense K000243058 syntype
    Vogel [47], Bioko Trema guineense K000243062
    Vogel [47], Bioko Trema guineense K000243063
    Vogel [47], Bioko Trema guineense K000243064
    Trema guineense K000243059 syntype
    Trema guineense K000243060
    Trema guineense K000243061
    Drege [s.n.], KwaZulu-Natal Celtis orientalis K000243027
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3689] Celtis orientalis K001110795
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3689] Celtis orientalis K001110796
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3689], India Celtis orientalis K001110797
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3689], India Celtis orientalis K001110798
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3689] Celtis orientalis K001110799
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3689] Celtis orientalis K001110800
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3689] Celtis orientalis K001110801
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3689] Celtis orientalis K001110802
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3689] Celtis orientalis K001110803
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3689] Celtis orientalis K001110804
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3689] Celtis orientalis K001110805
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3689] Celtis orientalis K001110806
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3689] Celtis orientalis K001110807

    First published in Mus. Bot. 2: 62 (1856)

    Accepted by

    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Toyama, H. & al. (2013). Inventory of the woody flora in Permanent plats of Kampong Thom and Kompong Chhnang provinces, Cambodia Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 64: 45-105.
    • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Harris, D.J. (2002). Vasc. Pl. Dzanga-Sangha: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1999). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 13: 1-284. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Launert, E. & Cope, G.V. (eds.) (1991). Flora Zambesiaca 9(6): 1-135. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Guého, J. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1985). Flore des Mascareignes 161-169: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (1983). Flora of Bhutan 1(1): 1-186. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Banks, R.C. (ed.) (1982). Wildlife and wildlife habitat of American Samoa 2: 1-151. U.S. Fisch and Wildlife services, Washington.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Polhill, R.M. (1966). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Ulmaceae: 1-14.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
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    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Toyama, H. & al. (2013). Inventory of the woody flora in Permanent plats of Kampong Thom and Kompong Chhnang provinces, Cambodia Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 64: 45-105.
    • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
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    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1999). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 13: 1-284. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
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    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Launert, E. & Cope, G.V. (eds.) (1991). Flora Zambesiaca 9(6): 1-135. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
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    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Guého, J. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1985). Flore des Mascareignes 161-169: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Banks, R.C. (ed.) (1982). Wildlife and wildlife habitat of American Samoa 2: 1-151. U.S. Fisch and Wildlife services, Washington.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
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    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0