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  1. Family: Acanthaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Avicennia L.
      1. Avicennia germinans (L.) L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is SE. U.S.A. to S. America, W. Tropical Africa to Angola.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 100 m.; Llanura del Caribe, Pacífico.
    Habit
    Arbusto, arbolito, árbol
    Conservation
    Preocupación Menor
    [FWTA]

    Avicenniaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A shrub or tree up to 50 ft. high
    Roots
    Pneumatophores covering the ground round about but stilt roots absent
    Flowers
    Flowers white with yellow centre
    Ecology
    In mangrove thickets.The black mangrove.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Angola, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Cabinda, Cameroon, Cayman Is., Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Mauritania, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Texas, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Zaïre

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Avicennia germinans (L.) L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1968 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [6924], Cameroon K000029876
    Silva, B.R. [1073], Brazil K001046362
    Medeiros, L. [s.n.], Brazil K001046363
    Aug 25, 1963 Pabst, G. [7385], Brazil Avicennia tomentosa K001046323
    Pabst, G. [5421], Brazil Avicennia tomentosa K001046325
    Pabst, G. [5421], Brazil Avicennia tomentosa K001046329
    Pereira, E. [431], Brazil Avicennia tomentosa K001046322
    Duarte, A.P. [5017], Brazil Avicennia tomentosa K001046327
    Duarte, A.P. [5017], Brazil Avicennia tomentosa K001046328
    Duarte, A.P. [5017], Brazil Avicennia tomentosa K001046324
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1742] Avicennia tomentosa K001114036
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1742], Myanmar Avicennia tomentosa K001114042
    Pabst, L.F. [s.n.], Brazil Avicennia tomentosa K001046326
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1742], India Avicennia tomentosa K001114037
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1742] Avicennia tomentosa K001114038
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1742] Avicennia tomentosa K001114039
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1742], India Avicennia tomentosa K001114040
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1742] Avicennia tomentosa K001114041
    Jan 1, 1976 Letouzey, R. [14809], Cameroon Avicennia africana K000029874
    Gossweiler, J. [s.n.], Angola Avicennia africana K001009777
    Gossweiler, J. [s.n.], Angola Avicennia africana K001009781
    Ward, C.J. [72], Angola Avicennia africana K001009782
    Ward, C.J. [86], Angola Avicennia africana K001009783
    Ward, C.J. [89], Angola Avicennia africana K001009784
    Welwitsch [5709], Angola Avicennia africana K001009778
    Welwitsch [5641], Angola Avicennia africana K001009779
    Welwitsch [5726], Angola Avicennia africana K001009780
    Thompson, S.A. [1333], Cameroon Avicennia africana K000029875
    Oct 1, 1936 Broadway, W.E. [5817], Trinidad & Tobago Avicennia nitida K000573634
    Trinidad & Tobago Avicennia nitida K000573636
    Trinidad & Tobago Avicennia nitida K000573635 Unknown type material
    Salzmann [s.n.], Brazil Avicennia nitida K001046358
    Salzmann [s.n.], Brazil Avicennia nitida K001046360
    Drouet, F. [2442], Brazil Avicennia nitida K001046357
    Froes, R. [1818], Brazil Avicennia nitida K001046354
    Gardner, G. [s.n.] Avicennia nitida K001046355
    Sellow [s.n.], Brazil Avicennia nitida K001046359
    Araújo, D.S.D. [825], Brazil Avicennia nitida K001046352
    Gardner [1101], Brazil Avicennia nitida K001046353
    Glaziou [9988], Brazil Avicennia nitida K001046356
    Glaziou [11324], Brazil Avicennia nitida K001046361

    Bibliography

    First published in Sp. Pl. ed. 3, 2: 891 (1764)

    Accepted by

    • Rodrigues Furtado, M.N., de Souza Secco, R. & Sousa Rocha, A.E. (2012). Sinopse das espécies de Lamiales Bromhead ocorrentes nas restingas do estado do Pará, Brasil Hoehnea 39: 529-547.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Fernandes, R.B. (2006). Contribução para o conhecimento das Avicenniaceae e Verbenaceae da Flora de Angola Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17(2): 5-68.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (2005). Rutaceae-Zygophyllaceae Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 9: 1-608. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Linares, J.L. (2003 publ. 2005). Lista comentado de los árboles nativos y cultivados en la República de El Salvador Ceiba; a Scientific and Technical Journal Published by Zamorano 44: 105-268.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lebrun, J.-P. (1998). Catalogue des plantes de la Mauritanie et du Sahara Occidental Boissiera 55: 1-322.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/