1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Clerodendrum L.
      1. Clerodendrum rotundifolium Oliv.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Cameroon to South Sudan and Mozambique.

    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Erect shrub 0.75–3 m. tall or sometimes climbing and even reported to be a small tree; stems with dense short spreading pubescence, later glabrescent and lenticellate.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3 or rarely alternate, ovate to ± round, (2–)5–28 cm. long, (0.9–)4.5–26 cm. wide, shortly acuminate at the apex, rounded to cordate or less often broadly cuneate at the base, entire, crenate or crenate-dentate, pubescent to densely pilose above, usually densely so or velvety beneath or sometimes indumentum restricted to the nervation; petiole 2–9(–11.5) cm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers fragrant, in terminal, not very dense, subumbellate dichasial cymes and with some in axils beneath, usually all ± aggregated in one inflorescence; pedicels 1.4–4 cm. long, pubescent with short soft hairs, glandular or not; bracts linear, ± 4 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx densely pubescent; tube subglobose, 3–5 mm. long; lobes lanceolate, 1–1.7 cm. long, 3.5–7 mm. wide, acuminate, becoming more triangular in fruit, 1.5–2.5 cm. long, 0.6–1.2 cm. wide.
    Corolla
    Corolla white; tube slender, (4–)6.3–11.3 cm. long, gjandular-pubescent outside; lobes broadly elliptic or oblong, 1–2.2 cm. long, 7–8.5 mm. wide, obtuse.
    Stamens
    Stamens exserted 3.5 cm.
    Pistil
    Style exserted 3.5 cm.; stigma purplish.
    Fruits
    Fruit red, drying black and shiny, depressed subglobose, 1–1.5 cm. long, 1.2–1.8 cm. wide, 4-lobed.
    Figures
    Fig. 12/7–9, p. 96.
    Habitat
    Acacia savanna, Combretum bushland, rocky places, stream-banks, scrub, anthills in dried parts of swamps, short grassland on hillsides, also cultivations in cleared rain-forest; 360–2130 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T5 T6 U1 U2 U3 U4 also occasionally cultivated
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Type
    Type from Tanzania.
    General
    A soft-wooded somewhat virgate shrub 1–4 m high, sometimes scandent or a liane up to c. 6 m or more, rarely a tree up to c. 8 m tall; flowering branches green-brownish to dark brown, stout, cylindrical, hollow, hispid pubescent, glabrescent; indumentum ± dense of short uniformly patent bristles, sometimes ± sparsely intermixed with longer (up to 2 mm long) bristles, found on the upper part of branches, petioles, the base and margins of inflorescence-leaves and the inflorescence and calyx, sometimes reddish or reddish-yellow on the petioles
    Inflorescences
    Cymes few-flowered, subumbellately arranged above and axillary below, aggregated into one lax terminal leafy inflorescence up to 17 cm long; peduncles of cymes ascending, those of the supra-axillary-cymes 5.5–8 cm long; pedicels long, those of the flowers in the dichotomies up to 4 cm; bracteoles linear Cymes few-flowered, subumbellately arranged above and axillary below, aggregated into one lax terminal leafy inflorescence up to 17 cm long; peduncles of cymes ascending, those of the supra-axillary-cymes 5.5–8 cm long; pedicels long, those of the flowers in the dichotomies up to 4 cm; bracteoles linear.
    Calyx
    Calyx 1.7–2.8 cm long, obconical at the base; lobes up to 1.5 cm long, and 1 cm wide at the base, attenuate-cuspidate, erect, sparsely puberulous Calyx 1.7–2.8 cm long, obconical at the base; lobes up to 1.5 cm long, and 1 cm wide at the base, attenuate-cuspidate, erect, sparsely puberulous.
    Corolla
    Corolla white or creamy-white, sweet-scented; tube 7–10 cm long, slender, glandular-pubescent on the outside; lobes 1.3–2 cm long and 5–9 mm wide, oblong or elliptic, obtuse Corolla white or creamy-white, sweet-scented; tube 7–10 cm long, slender, glandular-pubescent on the outside; lobes 1.3–2 cm long and 5–9 mm wide, oblong or elliptic, obtuse.
    Stamens
    Stamens and style exserted for c. 3.5 cm
    Fruits
    Fruit 1–1.5 cm long and 1.2–1.8 cm broad, black when dry. Fruit 1–1.5 cm long and 1.2–1.8 cm broad, black when dry.
    Ecology
    In evergreen forest margins and clearings, dry montane forest, Pinus plantation, woodland, banks of streams; 1140–1860 m.
    Note
    Most specimens from Malawi and Mozambique have a simple indumentum of short hairs.  In some other specimens, however, this indumentum is intermixed with scattered longer bristles (up to 2 mm long), as seen in Buchanan 359 (K, lectotype of the synonym C. zambesiacum ), Buchanan 332 (BM), Chapman 893 (FHO; SRGH) from Malawi; Macêdo 3409 and 3445 (LMA), Kirk s.n. (K) from Mozambique; and in Stolz 614 (LD; S; Z) from Tanzania.  Further investigation may reveal that these represent a separate taxon.
    Distribution
    Also in Sudan, Uganda, Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania and Dem. Rep. Congo.
    Habit
    A soft-wooded somewhat virgate shrub 1–4 m high, sometimes scandent or a liane up to c. 6 m or more, rarely a tree up to c. 8 m tall; flowering branches green-brownish to dark brown, stout, cylindrical, hollow, hispid pubescent, glabrescent; indumentum ± dense of short uniformly patent bristles, sometimes ± sparsely intermixed with longer (up to 2 mm long) bristles, found on the upper part of branches, petioles, the base and margins of inflorescence-leaves and the inflorescence and calyx, sometimes reddish or reddish-yellow on the petioles.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or 3-whorled; lamina 3.7–21 × 2.5–18 cm, ovate-orbicular to ovate or broadly elliptic, mostly cordate (sometimes deeply so) or subtruncate (sometimes the two base-types in the same plant) or rounded at the base, rounded and shortly acuminate at the apex (the acumen sometimes cuspidate), usually entire or rarely irregularly crenate, soft or somewhat rigid on drying, slightly pubescent above, more densely so beneath (hairs soft, whitish, denser on the nervation), sometimes nearly canescent or velvety beneath or on both faces; nerves and reticulation somewhat raised beneath; petiole 1–16 cm long. Leaves opposite or 3-whorled; lamina 3.7–21 × 2.5–18 cm, ovate-orbicular to ovate or broadly elliptic, mostly cordate (sometimes deeply so) or subtruncate (sometimes the two base-types in the same plant) or rounded at the base, rounded and shortly acuminate at the apex (the acumen sometimes cuspidate), usually entire or rarely irregularly crenate, soft or somewhat rigid on drying, slightly pubescent above, more densely so beneath (hairs soft, whitish, denser on the nervation), sometimes nearly canescent or velvety beneath or on both faces; nerves and reticulation somewhat raised beneath; petiole 1–16 cm long
    Stamen and Style
    Stamens and style exserted for c. 3.5 cm.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Burundi, Cameroon, Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaïre

    Clerodendrum rotundifolium Oliv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 6, 2009 Brummitt, R.K. [18532], Malawi K000248484
    Jan 1, 1935 Speke [461] K000192885
    Aug 1, 1893 Holst, C. [8908a] K000192886
    Tanner, R. [1664], Tanzania Clerodendrum hildebrandtii var. pubescens K000192883 isotype
    Tanner, R. [1664], Tanzania Clerodendrum hildebrandtii var. pubescens K000192884
    Zambia Clerodendrum zambesiacum K000192917
    illegible [359], Zambia Clerodendrum zambesiacum K000192916

    First published in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 29: 132 (1875)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 99, fig. 12/7–9 (1992).
    • Phytologia 60 : 136 (1986).
    • Blundell, Wild Fl. Kenya: 108, t. 3, fig. 15 (1982).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees & Shrubs: 585 (1961).
    • Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 9 : 36 (1954).
    • Jex-Blake, Gard. E. Africa, ed. 3: 206 (1950).
    • Brenan, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 635 (1949).
    • Robyns, Fl. Sperm. Parc Nat. Alb. 2 : 143 (1947).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 68 : 61 (1936).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 68 : 62 (1936).
    • R.E. Fries, Wiss. Ergebn. Schwed. Rhod.-Kongo-Exped.: 275 (1916).
    • Mildbraed, Wiss. Ergebn. Zweit. Deutsch. Zentr.-Afrika-Exped., Bot. 2: 282 (1914).
    • F.T.A. 5 : 308 (1900).
    • Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C : 341 (1895).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 398, t. 131 (1987).
    • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 614 (1974).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 585 (1961).
    • Jex-Blake, Gard. E. Afr., ed. 4: 225 (1957).
    • Brenan in Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 9: 36 (1954).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 634 (1949).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 2: 143 (1947).
    • Thomas in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 68: 61 (1936).
    • Bak. in Flora of Tropical Africa 5: 308 (1900).
    • Gürke in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 341 (1895).
    • Oliv. in Trans. Linn. Soc., Bot. 29: 132, t. 89 (1875).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0