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  1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Premna L.
      1. Premna serratifolia L.

        Premna serratifolia was named by the Swedish botanist and 'father of taxonomy' Carl Linnaeus in 1771, in the publication Mantissa Plantarum Altera. The leaves of the type specimen (the specimen used by Linnaeus to produce his description) are somewhat serrated, and hence explain the choice of the specific epithet serratifolia for a species that generally has smooth-edged leaves. There are about 50 species in the genus Premna. This particular species is also encountered in the literature as Premna integrifolia.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Type
    Type Herb. Linnaeus 7824 (LINN, lectotype).
    General
    A much branched bushy shrub or tree up to 8 m tall, sometimes with sarmentose branches; indumentum of spreading simple or multicellular hairs
    Branches
    Branches striate, glabrescent; branchlets densely short-pubescent or appressed pilose; leaf-scars prominent Branches striate, glabrescent; branchlets densely short-pubescent or appressed pilose; leaf-scars prominent.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite; blades 2.5–13.5(15) × 2–9 cm or more, broadly elliptic, elliptic.oblong or obovate-elliptic to suborbicular, rounded obtuse to subacute or shortly acuminate at the apex, cuneate or rounded to subcordate at the base, entire or crenate or subserrate to coarsely serrate above the middle, chartaceous to firmly membranaceous, dark green on both surfaces, glabrous or appressed pilose on the midrib and the main lateral nerves, or some hairs at the base of the midrib and in the lower nerve axils beneath; lateral nerves 3–5 per side, slender, ± prominent above, prominent beneath; petiole 0.5–3 cm long, usually slender, canaliculate, pubescent or puberulent, rarely hispid Leaves opposite; blades 2.5–13.5(15) × 2–9 cm or more, broadly elliptic, elliptic-oblong or obovate-elliptic to suborbicular, rounded obtuse to subacute or shortly acuminate at the apex, cuneate or rounded to subcordate at the base, entire or crenate or subserrate to coarsely serrate above the middle, chartaceous to firmly membranaceous, dark green on both surfaces, glabrous or appressed pilose on the midrib and the main lateral nerves, or some hairs at the base of the midrib and in the lower nerve axils beneath; lateral nerves 3–5 per side, slender, ± prominent above, prominent beneath; petiole 0.5–3 cm long, usually slender, canaliculate, pubescent or puberulent, rarely hispid.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal, corymbose, 3–8 × 4–10(14) cm or larger; peduncles 2–2.5 cm long, appressed-pilose; bracts 1–3 mm long, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate Inflorescences terminal, corymbose, 3–8 × 4–10(14) cm or larger; peduncles 2–2.5 cm long, appressed-pilose; bracts 1–3 mm long, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate.
    Flowers
    Flowers unpleasantly aromatic Flowers unpleasantly aromatic.
    Calyx
    Calyx 2.6 × 2.8 mm, campanulate, 2-lipped, with the upper lip entire or 2-lobed and the lower lip entire or shallowly 2–3-dentate, slightly puberulous and glandular on the outside Calyx 2.6 × 2.8 mm, campanulate, 2-lipped, with the upper lip entire or 2-lobed and the lower lip entire or shallowly 2–3-dentate, slightly puberulous and glandular on the outside.
    Corolla
    Corolla pale yellowish, whitish-green or greenish, 2-lipped; tube c. 3.5 mm long, cylindrical or ± funnel-shaped, pubescent outside and at the  throat; limb upper lip 1.5 × 1.4 mm, entire or 2-lobed, lower lip 3-lobed, with the median lobe c. 1.5 × 2 mm and slightly concave, the lateral lobes a little smaller, glabrous or appressed puberulous outside Corolla pale yellowish, whitish-green or greenish, 2-lipped; tube c. 3.5 mm long, cylindrical or ± funnel-shaped, pubescent outside and at the throat; limb upper lip 1.5 × 1.4 mm, entire or 2-lobed, lower lip 3-lobed, with the median lobe c. 1.5 × 2 mm and slightly concave, the lateral lobes a little smaller, glabrous or appressed puberulous outside.
    Stamens
    Stamens didynamous, slightly exserted; filaments c. 1.8 mm long, filiform, wider and pilose at the base; anthers c. 0.6 mm long, ovoid Stamens didynamous, slightly exserted; filaments c. 1.8 mm long, filiform, wider and pilose at the base; anthers c. 0.6 mm long, ovoid.
    Style
    Style c. 4.8 mm long Style c. 4.8 mm long.
    Ovary
    Ovary incompletely 4-locular Ovary incompletely 4-locular.
    Fruits
    Fruit black, c. 4 × 4 mm, subglobose, sitting in a shallowly cupuliform accrescent fruiting calyx 3–3.5 mm in diameter. Fruit black, c. 4 × 4 mm, subglobose, sitting in a shallowly cupuliform accrescent fruiting calyx 3–3.5 mm in diameter.
    Ecology
    On sand dunes and in coastal bush, also in bush at the margins of mangrove swamps; sea level–30 m.
    Note
    The specimen Kirk s.n. (K), collected in March 1861 from Rovuma River, [cited by Baker (loc. cit.) as collected in German East Africa], is a more robust plant differing from other material from Mozambique in the bristle-like indumentum on the leaf blades as well as the nerves, in the absence of the characteristic tufts of soft hairs in the nerve axils, and in the stouter petioles.
    Distribution
    Also in Tanzania, Aldabra Islands, Madagascar, Mauritius and Seychelles, Sri Lanka, India, Indo-China, S China, Philippines, Australia and Islands of Oceania. District code: MOZ N, MOZ Z, MOZ MS. Mozambique
    Habit
    A much branched bushy shrub or tree up to 8 m tall, sometimes with sarmentose branches; indumentum of spreading simple or multicellular hairs.
    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    A much branched shrub or tree 2.5–8 m. tall, rarely scandent or even prostrate; stems pubescent, puberulous or glabrescent, striate.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades oblong to obovate-elliptic, 2.5–15(–17) cm. long, 2–8.5(–14) cm. wide, obtuse to subacute or shortly acuminate at the apex, cuneate or rounded to subcordate at the base, entire or crenate (serrate in some extra-African varieties), glabrous or some hairs at base of midrib and in lower nerve-axils beneath or on midrib and venation (some extra-African varieties have velvety leaves); petiole 0.4–1.5 cm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers unpleasantly aromatic in extensive corymbs 4–7(–15) cm. long, 4–14(–23) cm. wide; peduncles 2–2.5 cm. long; axes densely puberulous; bracts ± linear, 1–3 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate, adpressed pubescent; tube 1–2 mm. long, rim ± 2-lipped, very shortly lobed, the lobes ± 0.5 mm. long.
    Corolla
    Corolla greenish white, scented; tube cylindrical or ± funnel-shaped, 2.5–4 mm. long, pubescent outside above and at throat; limb 2-lipped, one lip entire, the other 3-lobed; lobes 1.2–1.5 mm. long, 1.2–2 mm. wide, glabrous or adpressed puberulous outside.
    Fruits
    Fruits black, subglobose, 4 mm. diameter, glabrous or pulverulent.
    Habitat
    Sandy seashore above high-water mark with Sapotaceae, Dodonaea and Sophora, thicket and riverine forest; ± sea-level–375 m.
    Distribution
    Seychelles to Bangladesh, Thailand, S. China, Philippines, Ryukyu Is., Taiwan, Oceania and south to Australia K7 P T6 T8 Z
    [KBu]

    de Kok, R. 2013. The genus Premna L. (Lamiaceae) in the Flora Malesiana area. Kew Bulletin 68: 55. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-013-9433-5

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree, sometimes scandent or creeping, 1 – 10 m tall, DBH 3 – 40 (− 80) cm
    Bark
    Bark green to (dark or reddish) brown or grey, smooth to scaly or fissured
    Wood
    Sapwood cream coloured, hardwood brown
    Twigs
    Twigs sometimes with conspicuous interpetiolar ridges, hairy when young, becoming more glabrous as they mature, patches often remaining on interpetiolar ridges, bracts absent at base of new shoots
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite to subopposite, ovate or obovate (2 –) 4 – 21 × (1 –) 3 – 16 cm, apex obtuse to acuminate, base cuneate to cordate, margins entire or rarely serrate, characteous to membranous, glabrous sometimes with hairs on veins and/or in axil of the main-vein with the side-veins, dull to glossy, crushed leaves with foetid smell; glands yellow or brown, sessile; venation 4 – 9 main side-veins, often tri-veined from base; petioles 0.5 – 7 mm long, channelled, glabrous to the channelled filed with hairs, becoming more glabrous as they mature
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence 2 – 20 cm long, corymbose cymes, glabrous to velutinous; bracteoles linear, < 5 mm long
    Flowers
    Flowers: calyx 0 – 5-lobed, clearly to obscurely two-lipped, outer surface glabrous or sparsely pubescent, not to slightly accrescent, shortly pedicellate, green to yellow-white; lobe apex rounded to acute; glands yellow, sessile; flowering calyx 1 – 2 mm, variously lobed; fruiting calyx 2 – 4 mm long, variously lobed
    Corolla
    Corolla tube 1.2 – 5 × 1 – 2 mm, slightly two-lipped to lobes iso-morphous, glabrous to sparsely hairy on lobes, (greenish-)white to reddish, scent absent or slightly lemon-like; glands yellow, sessile; central lobe of lower lip orbicular to oblong or spathulate, 0.8 – 3.5 × 0.5 – 2 mm, apex rounded, sometimes reflexed; other lobes 0.8 – 1.7 × 0.5 – 1.5 mm, apex rounded, erect to reflexed
    Stamens
    Stamens 1 – 5 mm long, just exserted from the tube, ± didynamous, white; anthers 0.2 – 0.6 mm long, brown to yellowish green
    Ovary
    Ovary globose, 0.5 – 1.3 mm diam., glabrous, sometime with a dense patch of glands at apex; style 2 – 7 mm long, exserted, white; stigma 0.5 – 1 mm long, apex acute
    Fruits
    Fruit globose, 3 – 8 × 3 – 5 mm, glabrous, outer surface sometimes warty, glossy, green turning sometimes white, then black, purple or dark red when mature, endocarp smooth
    Seeds
    Seeds four, equally developed when mature.
    Distribution
    Widely distributed along the coasts and the islands of tropical and subtropical Asia, Africa, Australia and the Pacific (see Map 8). Often grown in gardens and as a street tree.
    Ecology
    Growing in open vegetation (including Melaleuca savannas), kerangas or swamps forest, common along the coasts (including Barringtonia, Sago or mangrove vegetation), rivers, or in urban environments. Soils sand or (clay) loam or clay, sometimes over ultra basic-, limestone- or volcanic-substrate; 0 – 350 (− 700) m. This species is reported to be dioecious in Madang, Papua New Guinea (Mabberley 1992).
    Conservation
    Least Concern (LC).
    Phenology
    Flowering and fruiting all year round.
    Vernacular
    Peninsular Malaysia: Malbau or Pako Buas buas (Malay language), Akar Buas buas or Akar juting. Sabah: Bangkung Kayu (Malay language); Buas-buas or Sarunai (Brunei language); Salung-anak or Baloh (East Coast Bajau language); Adua or Lambuas (Bajau language). Sarawak: Singkel (Malay language); Akar tulang (Kanyah language); Akar engkleh (Iban language). Philippines: Adgaw (Tagbanua language); Alagao(−dagat) or Alacas (Tagalog language). Indonesia, West Java: Ki pahang, Ki seungit or Wooeng (Sundanese language), Singkil or Sinkil alas (Javanese language), Kitai, South West Java: Lamutah, Pulau Panaitan: Ketumbang embe. Bali: Babon. Sulawesi: Indjaro (Makassar language); Inrělo (Buginese language). Central Kalimantan: Laban poetih. Sumatra: Tandong-rimoe, Tandong-tandong or Amboeng-amboeng laoet (Malay language), Baroewěh or Baroh (Atjeh language), Baroewas (Batak language), Si Baroewěh (Minangkabou language). Moluccas, Daoen kambling or Sajor kambing (Malay language), Aru Island: Alar; Ambon: Gumira (laut or dara) Ternate language; Halmahera: Somoko (Tobaro language); Ceram, Ruhuloa: Ai’Suto; Bacan Island: Gomirang. Indonesian New Guinea, Oransbari: Buwempe (Hatam language); Oppraka (Momi village); Kebar valley: Dojik (Andjai language); Ransiki: Sorrĕměs; Merauke: Pue. Papua New Guinea, Aroaro (Onjob and Minufia languages). Manus Island: E’yin or Kiare. Mbuke Island: Kal. Sandaun Province: Mumwas (Miyanmin language); New Britain: La kepei (North Nakanai language) or Galo (Kulumo language); Central Province: Aru-aru (Mekeo language) and Kala (Amele language); Sepik distr.: Cuski (Ossima Village); Milne Bay Distr.: Arorara (Wanigela language) and Onjob (Koreaf language), Morobe distr.: Qalo (Luluai Village); NE Bougainville: Sibo. Australia, Cocos Keeling Island: Pokok nak Nilam (Malay language).
    Note
    Premna serratifolia shows significant morphological variation across a wide geographical distribution, especially in leaf shape, leaf margin, inflorescence size and calyx form. This was recognised and well illustrated by Lam (1919: 140 – 147, Pl. 2 (as Premna integrifolia)) and Munir (1984: 19). Nevertheless, Lam (1919) decided that two subspecies could be recognised (P. integrifolia subsp. truncatolabium and P. integrifolia subsp. dentatolabium) mainly based on the leaf shape. After studying the specimens available in BO, Lam & Bakhuizen van den Brink (1921) decided that these subspecies could no longer be recognised, and suggested five different types (type I integrifolia, type II abbreviata, type III cyclophylla, type IV sambucina, type V foetida). These subdivisions were based on a series of continuous characters and ecological data (habitat, from seashore to inland; from shrub to tree; lamina becoming bigger and more acuminate and calyx becoming more distinct and toothed) which, according to the authors, overlapped and formed a cline. Many attempts have been made across the wide range of P. serratifolia to recognise this variation under several taxon names. However, when an extensive amount of material is examined the variation is found to be continuous. Following other authors (Munir 1984; Mabberley in Mabberley & de Kok 2004; Leeratiwong 2008), I consider it more convenient and less confusing to recognise one taxon only, resulting in the long list of synonyms given.
    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description

    Premna serratifolia was named by the Swedish botanist and 'father of taxonomy' Carl Linnaeus in 1771, in the publication Mantissa Plantarum Altera. The leaves of the type specimen (the specimen used by Linnaeus to produce his description) are somewhat serrated, and hence explain the choice of the specific epithet serratifolia for a species that generally has smooth-edged leaves. There are about 50 species in the genus Premna. This particular species is also encountered in the literature as Premna integrifolia.

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Premna serratifolia is widely distributed along the coasts and islands of tropical and subtropical Asia, Africa, Australia and the Pacific.

    Description

    Malbau is a shrub or small tree, sometimes creeping along the ground, and growing 1-10 m tall. It has green to brown bark which is smooth or scaly. The leaves are held opposite each other on the stem, and are 4-20 cm long and 3-16 cm wide. The leaf margins are smooth (or rarely serrated) and hairless, and the crushed leaves smell of cat's urine. The white flowers have five corolla lobes. The fruits are more-or-less spherical, 3-8 mm long, 3-5 mm wide, hairless, and black or dark red when mature.

    Threats and conservation

    Premna serratifolia is not considered to be threatened.

    Uses

    In Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia, the young leaves are boiled and eaten as a vegetable. In various parts of Indonesia, an infusion of the leaves and roots is used against fevers and shortness of breath; women also eat the leaves in order to promote breast-milk production. In Indo-China, the leaves and roots are used in traditional medicine as a diuretic, stomachic and febrifuge. On Guam, in the Pacific Ocean, a tea made from the boiled bark is used to treat neuralgia. Premna serratifolia is one of several herbal ingredients of 'Dasamula' (or 'Dashamula') used in the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine.

    Premna serratifolia contains alkaloids, iridoid glycosides and several diterpenoids. Recent laboratory research has been undertaken into the possible cardiac stimulant activity of bark and wood extracts.

    Premna serratifolia can be propagated easily from cuttings, and hence it is used for hedges and as a street tree.

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

    Description of seeds: Average 1,000 seed weight = 1.53 g

    Number of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank: One

    Germination testing: Unsuccessful

    Cultivation

    Malbau is not cultivated at Kew, but is known to be in cultivation elsewhere in the world, for example as a shade tree.

    Malbau at Kew

    Pressed and dried specimens of Premna serratifolia are held in the Herbarium, one of the behind-the-scenes areas of Kew. The details of some of these can be seen in the online Herbarium Catalogue.

    View details of specimens

    Samples of bark, root and a carved wooden elephant are held in the Economic Botany Collection.

    Distribution
    Australia
    Ecology
    Open vegetation along coasts and rivers.
    Hazards

    None known.

    [KBu]
    Use
    The young boiled leaves are eaten as a vegetable in Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia. In various parts of Indonesia an infusion of the leaves and roots is used to treat fevers and shortness of breath, and women eat the leaves in order to promote breast milk production. As the plant is easy to propagate from cuttings it is used for hedges. The wood, especially the hard wood of the roots, is used for making tool handles and paddles (Heyne 1950: 1314). Sarawak, Kenyah people: a solution of boiled roots is used as a cure for stomach-ache and diarrhoea. Philippines: East Mindoro, used for sore throats and coughs. Indonesia, Aru islands: used against snakebite. Halmahera: crushed leaves are applied to bee stings. Obi Island: Boiled leaves are stroked over a baby’s skin in order to make it more beautiful. Papua New Guinea and Indonesian New Guinea: the leaves are used as an insect repellent and the fruits are eaten.
    [KSP]
    Use
    Edible leaves; leaves, roots and bark used in traditional medicine; used for hedges and as a street tree.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Aldabra, Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Comoros, Cook Is., Fiji, Gilbert Is., Hainan, India, Jawa, Kenya, Laccadive Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maldives, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niue, Northern Territory, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Queensland, Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Seychelles, Society Is., Solomon Is., South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western Australia

    Introduced into:

    Line Is.

    Synonyms

    Common Names

    English
    Malbau

    Other Data

    Premna serratifolia L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Apr 28, 2016 Daly, D.C. et al. [13377], Papua New Guinea K000939001
    Jan 8, 2016 Utteridge, T.M.A. [682], New Guinea K000938724
    Jul 1, 2015 Takeuchi, W. et al. [17623], Papua New Guinea K000938635
    Jan 1, 2010 Carr, C.E. [11433], Papua New Guinea K000670863
    Jan 1, 2010 Carr, C.E. [12392], Papua New Guinea K000670870
    Jan 1, 2010 Sayers, D. [NGF18980], Papua New Guinea K000670862
    Jan 1, 2010 Sayers, D. [NGF13249], Papua New Guinea K000670866
    Jan 1, 2010 Brass, L.J. [1147], Papua New Guinea K000670865
    Jan 1, 2010 Brass, L.J. [24437], Papua New Guinea K000670869
    Jan 1, 2010 Brass, L.J. [864], Papua New Guinea K000670871
    Jan 1, 2010 Takeuchi, W. [14893], Papua New Guinea K000670860
    Jan 1, 2010 Havel, J.J. [NGF17200], Papua New Guinea K000670859
    Jan 1, 2010 Floyd, A.G. [NGF8015], Papua New Guinea K000670872
    Jan 1, 2010 Saunders, J.C. [67], Papua New Guinea K000670867
    Jan 1, 2010 Frodin, D. [2560], Papua New Guinea K000670873
    Jan 1, 2010 Miller, A.N. [NGF18873], Papua New Guinea K000670857
    Jan 1, 2010 Wright, R.G. [NGF11110], Papua New Guinea K000670858
    Jan 1, 2010 Mann, E.B. [NGF43117], Papua New Guinea K000670861
    Jan 1, 2010 Mann, E.B. [NGF43006], Papua New Guinea K000670864
    Jan 1, 2010 Hartley, T.H. [9724], Papua New Guinea K000670868
    Jan 1, 2009 Native Collector [1648], Malaysia K000825966
    Jan 1, 2009 Carr, C.E. [11580], Papua New Guinea K000670849
    Jan 1, 2009 Sayers, D. [NGF21863], Papua New Guinea K000670843
    Jan 1, 2009 Sayers, D. [NGF21998], Papua New Guinea K000670844
    Jan 1, 2009 Sayers, D. [NGF24203], Papua New Guinea K000825935
    Jan 1, 2009 Sayers, D. [NGF24143], Papua New Guinea K000825963
    Jan 1, 2009 Sayers, D. [NGF21850], Papua New Guinea K000826521
    Jan 1, 2009 Waterhouse, J.H.L. [789B], Papua New Guinea K000670820
    Jan 1, 2009 Waterhouse, J.H.L. [713B], Papua New Guinea K000670822
    Jan 1, 2009 Brass, L.J. [13999], Indonesia K000670799
    Jan 1, 2009 Brass, L.J. [28682], Papua New Guinea K000670855
    Jan 1, 2009 Brass, L.J. [8330], Papua New Guinea K000825920
    Jan 1, 2009 Brass, L.J. [1118], Papua New Guinea K000825922
    Jan 1, 2009 Brass, L.J. [28030], Papua New Guinea K000825924
    Jan 1, 2009 Brass, L.J. [1101], Papua New Guinea K000825927
    Jan 1, 2009 Brass, L.J. [6378], Papua New Guinea K000825928
    Jan 1, 2009 Brass, L.J. [21922], Papua New Guinea K000825933
    Jan 1, 2009 Brass, L.J. [25898], Papua New Guinea K000825937
    Jan 1, 2009 Brass, L.J. [26034], Papua New Guinea K000825938
    Jan 1, 2009 Brass, L.J. [32628], Papua New Guinea K000826517
    Jan 1, 2009 Ashton, P.S. [21477], Malaysia K000825973
    Jan 1, 2009 Sands, M.J.S. [6697], Indonesia K000670804
    Jan 1, 2009 Sands, M.J.S. [2710], Papua New Guinea K000670824
    Jan 1, 2009 Sands, M.J.S. [2828], Papua New Guinea K000670825
    Jan 1, 2009 Sands, M.J.S. [2828], Papua New Guinea K000670826
    Jan 1, 2009 Sands, M.J.S. [3019], Papua New Guinea K000670827
    Jan 1, 2009 Sands, M.J.S. [3019], Papua New Guinea K000670828
    Jan 1, 2009 Sands, M.J.S. [2710], Papua New Guinea K000670829
    Jan 1, 2009 Sands, M.J.S. [2971], Papua New Guinea K000670830
    Jan 1, 2009 Sands, M.J.S. [2021], Papua New Guinea K000670831
    Jan 1, 2009 Sands, M.J.S. [2021], Papua New Guinea K000670832
    Jan 1, 2009 Sands, M.J.S. [6697], Indonesia K000670881
    Jan 1, 2009 Clemens, J. [20687], Malaysia K000646961
    Jan 1, 2009 Coode, M. [NGF46109], Papua New Guinea K000670834
    Jan 1, 2009 Coode, M. [NGF29616], Papua New Guinea K000825931
    Jan 1, 2009 Coode, M. [NGF29616], Papua New Guinea K000825932
    Jan 1, 2009 Womersley, J.S. [LAE55359], Papua New Guinea K000826515
    Jan 1, 2009 Clemens, M.S. [9693], Malaysia K000646934
    Jan 1, 2009 Henderson, M.R. [SFN29540], Malaysia K000645932
    Jan 1, 2009 Henderson, M.R. [20233], Indonesia K000646836
    Jan 1, 2009 Henderson, M.R. [20233], Indonesia K000646837
    Jan 1, 2009 Corner, E.J.H. [SFN29777], Malaysia K000645949
    Jan 1, 2009 Corner, E.J.H. [SFN25812], Malaysia K000645996
    Jan 1, 2009 Whitmore, T.C. [FRI3478], Malaysia K000645997
    Jan 1, 2009 Ridley, H.N. [s.n.], Singapore K000645917
    Jan 1, 2009 Ridley, H.N. [7596], Malaysia K000645921
    Jan 1, 2009 Ridley, H.N. [14166], Malaysia K000645950
    Jan 1, 2009 Millar, A.N. [NGF40891], Papua New Guinea K000670854
    Jan 1, 2009 Keith, H.G. [7390], Malaysia K000825989
    Jan 1, 2009 Schodde, R. [4515], Papua New Guinea K000826516
    Jan 1, 2009 Meijer, W. [134622], Malaysia K000825999
    Jan 1, 2009 Darbyshire, P.J. [993], Papua New Guinea K000826518
    Jan 1, 2009 Hoogland, R.D. [4649], Papua New Guinea K000825921
    Jan 1, 2009 Hoogland, R.D. [4312], Papua New Guinea K000825965
    Jan 1, 2009 Anderson, J.A.R. [31620], Malaysia K000825972
    Jan 1, 2009 Garcia, H. [18409], Philippines K000825896
    Jan 1, 2009 Streimann, H. [NGF33484], Papua New Guinea K000670837
    Jan 1, 2009 Kairo, A. [143], Papua New Guinea K000825936
    Jan 1, 2009 Johns, R.J. [7886], Indonesia K000670878
    Jan 1, 2009 Burkill, H.M. [161], Malaysia K000645919
    Jan 1, 2009 Coode, M.J.E. [7388] K000646966
    Jan 1, 2009 Coode, M.J.E. [5312], Philippines K000825843
    Jan 1, 2009 Coode, M.J.E. [5312], Philippines K000825844
    Jan 1, 2009 Gutierrez, H.G. [78281], Philippines K000825872
    Jan 1, 2009 Vinas, A. [204], Papua New Guinea K000825957
    Jan 1, 2009 Lavarack, P. [NGF31220], Papua New Guinea K000670821
    Jan 1, 2009 Craven, L.A. [726], Papua New Guinea K000825959
    Jan 1, 2009 Craven, L.A. [818], Papua New Guinea K000826514
    Jan 1, 2009 Cockburn, P.F. [SAN82473], Malaysia K000646918
    Jan 1, 2009 Hartley, T.G. [10217], Papua New Guinea K000826522
    Jan 1, 2009 Madulid, D.A. [23932], Philippines K000825846
    Jan 1, 2009 Dransfield, J. [SMHI1224], Philippines K000825909
    Jan 1, 2009 Ng, F.S.P. [FRI27079], Malaysia K000645947
    Jan 1, 2009 Ng, F.S.P. [FRI5039], Malaysia K000645948
    Jan 1, 2009 Ridsdale, C.E. [1363], Philippines K000666613
    Jan 1, 2009 Ridsdale, C.E. [1428], Philippines K000825856
    Jan 1, 2009 Ridsdale, C.E. [1428], Philippines K000825857
    Jan 1, 2009 Ridsdale, C.E. [1858], Philippines K000825892
    Jan 1, 2009 Ridsdale, C.E. [1136], Philippines K000825893
    Jan 1, 2009 Ridsdale, C.E. [986], Philippines K000825900
    Jan 1, 2009 Wong, K.M. [15] K000646964
    Jan 1, 2009 Wong, K.M. [44] K000646967
    Jan 1, 2009 Wong, K.M. [201] K000646968
    Jan 1, 2009 Main [1340], Indonesia K000646973
    Jan 1, 2009 Main [949], Indonesia K000646980
    Jan 1, 2009 White, C.T. [NGF1590], Papua New Guinea K000825958
    Jan 1, 2009 Kessler, P. [1263], Indonesia K000646856
    Jan 1, 2009 Kessler, P. [1698], Indonesia K000646857
    Jan 1, 2009 Kessler, P. [396], Indonesia K000646858
    Jan 1, 2009 Kessler, P. [1682], Indonesia K000646863
    Jan 1, 2009 Hopkins, H.C.F. [1713], Papua New Guinea K000825962
    Jan 1, 2009 Lee, B. [S41815], Malaysia K000646957
    Jan 1, 2009 Chai, P. [34652], Malaysia K000825975
    Jan 1, 2009 Haviland, G.D. [3054], Malaysia K000825980
    Jan 1, 2009 Endert, F.H. [1437], Indonesia K000646849
    Jan 1, 2009 Endert, F.H. [1491], Indonesia K000646853
    Jan 1, 2009 Laman, T.G. [588], Indonesia K000646864
    Jan 1, 2009 Utteridge, T.M.A. [43], Indonesia K000171991
    Jan 1, 2009 Hollrung, M. [679], Papua New Guinea K000670850 isotype
    Jan 1, 2009 Hollrung, M. [320], Papua New Guinea K000825926
    Jan 1, 2009 Heatubun, C.D. [178], Indonesia K000171995
    Jan 1, 2009 Loher, A. [4388], Philippines K000666612
    Jan 1, 2009 Loher, A. [4396], Philippines K000666736
    Jan 1, 2009 Loher, A. [4395], Philippines K000666738
    Jan 1, 2009 Willis, F.R. [103], Indonesia K000171990
    Jan 1, 2009 Yates, H.S. [1245], Indonesia K000646827
    Jan 1, 2009 Whitford, H.N. [671], Philippines K000666745 syntype
    Jan 1, 2009 Beccari, O. [2262], Malaysia K000646867
    Jan 1, 2009 Beccari, O. [392], Malaysia K000825974
    Jan 1, 2009 Beccari, O. [142], Malaysia K000825976
    Jan 1, 2009 Curtis, C. [861], Malaysia K000645914
    Jan 1, 2009 Curtis, C. [215], Malaysia K000645989
    Jan 1, 2009 Foxworthy, F.W. [616], Philippines K000825915
    Jan 1, 2009 Borden, T.E. [2043], Philippines K000825917
    Jan 1, 2009 Takeuchi, W. [10081], Papua New Guinea K000670833
    Jan 1, 2009 Takeuchi, W. [14893], Papua New Guinea K000670847
    Jan 1, 2009 Gaerlan, F.J.M. [10358], Philippines K000666756
    Jan 1, 2009 Gaerlan, F.J.M. [9888], Philippines K000666748
    Jan 1, 2009 Gaerlan, F.J.M. [10237], Philippines K000825849
    Jan 1, 2009 Soejarto, D.D. [7761], Philippines K000825855
    Jan 1, 2009 Soejarto, D.D. [6477], Philippines K000825894
    Jan 1, 2009 Madani, L. [SAN111364], Malaysia K000646933
    Jan 1, 2009 Robinson, C.B. [308], Indonesia K000646979
    Jan 1, 2009 Robinson, C.B. [307], Indonesia K000646986
    Jan 1, 2009 Vidal, S. [3435], Philippines K000825864
    Jan 1, 2009 Vidal, S. [1640], Philippines K000825865
    Jan 1, 2009 Backer, C.A. [18275], Indonesia K000646842
    Jan 1, 2009 Versteeg, G.M. [1129], Indonesia K000670800
    Jan 1, 2009 Versteeg, G.M. [1873], Indonesia K000670876
    Jan 1, 2009 Versteeg, G.M. [1129], Indonesia K000670883
    Jan 1, 2009 Royen, P. van [3102], Indonesia K000670802
    Jan 1, 2009 Royen, P. van [6639], Papua New Guinea K000670803
    Jan 1, 2009 Widjaja, E.A. [6362], Indonesia K000670796
    Jan 1, 2009 Widjaja, E.A. [6338], Indonesia K000670797
    Jan 1, 2009 Widjaja, E.A. [6040], Indonesia K000670801
    Jan 1, 2009 Widjaja, E.A. [6119], Indonesia K000670882
    Jan 1, 2009 Kanehira [13190], Indonesia K000670806
    Jan 1, 2009 Kanehira [12844], Indonesia K000670807
    Jan 1, 2009 Vandenberg, J. [NGF42357], Papua New Guinea K000825955
    Jan 1, 2009 Meyer Drees, E. [178], Indonesia K000670879
    Jan 1, 2009 Docters van Leeuwen, W.M. [10177], Indonesia K000670805
    Jan 1, 2009 Pullen, R. [6710], Papua New Guinea K000826520
    Jan 1, 2009 Henty, E.E. [NGF11513], Papua New Guinea K000825964
    Jan 1, 2009 Wiakabu, J. [LAE70252], Papua New Guinea K000825925
    Jan 1, 2009 Royen P. van [5005], Indonesia K000670880
    Jan 1, 2009 Kostermans, A. [19251], Indonesia K000646848
    Jan 1, 2009 Kostermans, A. [13677], Indonesia K000646854
    Jan 1, 2009 Kostermans, A. [205], Indonesia K000670808
    Jan 1, 2009 Kostermans, A. [2795], Indonesia K000670875
    Jan 1, 2009 Stone, B.C. [568], Philippines K000666749
    Jan 1, 2009 Stone, B.C. [634], Philippines K000666750
    Jan 1, 2009 Stone, B.C. [LAE53613], Papua New Guinea K000670823
    Jan 1, 2009 Stone, B.C. [420], Philippines K000825895
    Jan 1, 2009 Floyd, A. [6696], Papua New Guinea K000670838
    Jan 1, 2009 Floyd, A. [6421], Papua New Guinea K000670842
    Jan 1, 2009 Burley, J.S. [4102], Indonesia K000646940
    Jan 1, 2009 Burley, J.S. [165], Philippines K000666614
    Jan 1, 2009 Foreman, D. [LAE59105], Papua New Guinea K000825960
    Jan 1, 2009 Barker, W.R. [LAE66528], Papua New Guinea K000826519
    Jan 1, 2009 Gjellerup, K. [439], Indonesia K000670874
    Jan 1, 2009 Kiah [SFN35203], Malaysia K000645935
    Jan 1, 2009 Kiah [SFN35203], Malaysia K000645936
    Jan 1, 2009 Buwalda, P. [4233], Indonesia K000646950
    Jan 1, 2009 Buwalda, P. [4420], Indonesia K000646951
    Jan 1, 2009 Buwalda, P. [5543], Indonesia K000646953
    Jan 1, 2009 Buwalda, P. [6090], Indonesia K000646981
    Jan 1, 2009 Boden-Kloss, C. [14453], Sumatera K000646835 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2009 Curran, H.M. [3524], Philippines K000666739
    Jan 1, 2009 Curran, H.M. [3812], Philippines K000825910
    Jan 1, 2009 Curran, H.M. [3768], Philippines K000825918
    Jan 1, 2009 Bloembergen, S. [4554], Indonesia K000646982
    Jan 1, 2009 Bloembergen, S. [3808], Indonesia K000646989
    Jan 1, 2009 Forbes, H.O. [3331a], Indonesia K000646952
    Jan 1, 2009 Forbes, H.O. [165], Papua New Guinea K000825930
    Jan 1, 2009 Horsfield, T. [s.n.], Jawa K000646839 syntype
    Jan 1, 2009 Horsfield, T. [144], Jawa K000646840 syntype
    Jan 1, 2009 Horsfield, T. [s.n.], Jawa K000646841 syntype
    Jan 1, 2009 Afriastini, J.J. [2823], Indonesia K000646831
    Jan 1, 2009 Afriastini, J.J. [2833A], Indonesia K000646832
    Jan 1, 2009 Afriastini, J.J. [1503], Indonesia K000646844
    Jan 1, 2009 Amin, Ag. [SAN126806], Malaysia K000646937
    Jan 1, 2009 Amin, Ag. [102481], Malaysia K000825985
    Jan 1, 2009 Amin, Ag. [86496], Malaysia K000825991
    Jan 1, 2009 Amin, Ag. [114683], Malaysia K000825994
    Jan 1, 2009 Amin, Ag. [117849], Malaysia K000825995
    Jan 1, 2009 Meyer, A.B. [s.n.], Indonesia K000646948
    Jan 1, 2009 Meyer, A.B. [s.n.], Indonesia K000646949
    Jan 1, 2009 Meyer, A.B. [s.n.], Indonesia K000646941
    Jan 1, 2009 Meyer, A.B. [s.n.], Indonesia K000646955
    Jan 1, 2009 Rau, K. [198], Papua New Guinea K000825934
    Jan 1, 2009 Kostermans, A.J.G.H. [22050], Indonesia K000646987
    Jan 1, 2009 Ramlanto [283], Indonesia K000646838
    Jan 1, 2009 Ramlanto [25], Indonesia K000646859
    Jan 1, 2009 Nauen, J.C. [SFN38090], Malaysia K000645923
    Jan 1, 2009 Nauen, J.C. [SFN38090], Malaysia K000645998
    Jan 1, 2009 Said, I.M. [15915] K000646965
    Jan 1, 2009 Copeland, E.B. [350], Philippines K000825914
    Jan 1, 2009 Creagh, C.M.G. [s.n.], Malaysia K000825992
    Jan 1, 2009 Creagh, C.M.G. [s.n.], Malaysia K000826000
    Jan 1, 2009 Romero, E. [2959], Philippines K000666751
    Jan 1, 2009 Romero, E. [29598], Philippines K000666755
    Jan 1, 2009 Wray, L. [249B], Malaysia K000645937
    Jan 1, 2009 Wray, L. [200], Peninsular Malaysia K000645941 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2009 Griffith, W. [6030], Peninsular Malaysia K000645926 syntype
    Jan 1, 2009 Griffith, W. [6030], Peninsular Malaysia K000645927 syntype
    Jan 1, 2009 Wenzel, C.A. [3110], Philippines K000666616
    Jan 1, 2009 Lütjeharms, W.J. [4228], Indonesia K000646829
    Jan 1, 2009 Lütjeharms, W.J. [5142], Indonesia K000646833
    Jan 1, 2009 Lütjeharms, W.J. [5142], Indonesia K000646834
    Jan 1, 2009 Hose, C. [807], Indonesia K000646943
    Jan 1, 2009 Hose, C. [669], Malaysia K000825979
    Jan 1, 2009 Ledermann, C.L. [6730], Papua New Guinea K000670851
    Jan 1, 2009 Ledermann, C.L. [6858], Papua New Guinea K000670852
    Jan 1, 2009 Motley, J. [219], Indonesia K000646866
    Jan 1, 2009 Goverse, E. [431], Indonesia K000646850
    Jan 1, 2009 Moseley, H.N. [s.n.], Indonesia K000646954
    Jan 1, 2009 Moseley, H.N. [s.n.], Papua New Guinea K000670856
    Jan 1, 2009 Maskuri [924], Indonesia K000646983
    Jan 1, 2009 Pleyte, D.R. [102], Indonesia K000646947
    Jan 1, 2009 Pleyte, D.R. [81], Indonesia K000646972
    Jan 1, 2009 Bau, B. [LAE83044], Papua New Guinea K000825929
    Jan 1, 2009 Ellen, R.F. [54], Indonesia K000646984
    Jan 1, 2009 MacGillivray, J. [s.n.], Papua New Guinea K000670848
    Jan 1, 2009 Riswan, S. [J045], Indonesia K000646845
    Jan 1, 2009 Nur, M. [s.n.], Singapore K000645916
    Jan 1, 2009 Shah, M. [793], Malaysia K000645951
    Jan 1, 2009 J.C. [1601], Malaysia K000645920
    Jan 1, 2009 Mamit, J.D. [33421], Malaysia K000825977
    Jan 1, 2009 Cuadra, A. [A1198], Malaysia K000646962
    Jan 1, 2009 Sam, P.P. [SAN26552], Malaysia K000646931
    Jan 1, 2009 AET (exp. Lundquist) [40], Indonesia K000670798
    Jan 1, 2009 Kadir [A2685], Malaysia K000646921
    Jan 1, 2009 Kadir [A679], Malaysia K000646932
    Jan 1, 2009 Sulit, M.D. [6216], Philippines K000825873
    Jan 1, 2009 Tandom [3375], Malaysia K000825996
    Jan 1, 2009 Idjan [347], Indonesia K000646975
    Jan 1, 2009 Goklin, T. [2067], Malaysia K000646935
    Jan 1, 2009 Agama [9474], Malaysia K000646959
    Jan 1, 2009 Castillo, M. [652], Sabah K000646923 isotype
    Jan 1, 2009 Dallachy, J. [s.n.], Queensland K001067680 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2009 Reynoso, E. [3658], Philippines K000825852
    Jan 1, 2009 Reynoso, E. [24195], Philippines K000825860
    Jan 1, 2009 Reynoso, E. [24484], Philippines K000825898
    Jan 1, 2009 Reynoso, E. [24344], Philippines K000825904
    Jan 1, 2009 Reynoso, E. [87737], Philippines K000825908
    Jan 1, 2009 Reillo, J. [16302], Philippines K000825850
    Jan 1, 2009 Blume, C.L. [s.n.], Indonesia K000646843
    Jan 1, 2009 Vidal y Soler, S. [1639], Philippines K000666605
    Jan 1, 2009 Vidal y Soler, S. [1638], Philippines K000666615
    Jan 1, 2009 Edaño, G.E. [19863], Philippines K000666742
    Jan 1, 2009 Edaño, G.E. [250], Philippines K000666744
    Jan 1, 2009 Edaño, G.E. [3520], Philippines K000825871
    Jan 1, 2009 Lörzing, J.A. [15950], Indonesia K000646830
    Jan 1, 2009 Yapp, R.H. [283], Malaysia K000645928
    Jan 1, 2009 Amjah [35], Indonesia K000646865
    Jan 1, 2009 Elbert, J. [2804], Indonesia K000646942
    Jan 1, 2009 Martin, P.J. [39284], Malaysia K000825970
    Jan 1, 2009 Branderhorst, B. [32], Indonesia K000670877
    Jan 1, 2009 Isles, R.S. [NGF32228], Papua New Guinea K000670841
    Jan 1, 2009 Vogel, E.F. de [4204], Indonesia K000646974
    Jan 1, 2009 Vogel, E.F. de [3475], Indonesia K000646976
    Jan 1, 2009 Vogel, E.F. de [3967], Indonesia K000646977
    Jan 1, 2009 Borssum Waalkes, J. van [3172], Indonesia K000646946
    Jan 1, 2009 Borssum Waalkes, J. van [528], Indonesia K000646846
    Jan 1, 2009 Mendoza, D.R. [98620], Philippines K000825905
    Jan 1, 2009 Rahim, A. [5473], Malaysia K000825997
    Jan 1, 2009 Griffiths, W. [s.n.], Malaysia K000645991
    Jan 1, 2009 Griffiths, W. [s.n.], Malaysia K000645992
    Jan 1, 2009 Stancik, D. [4879], Papua New Guinea K000825919
    Jan 1, 2009 Mann, E. [NGF43428], Papua New Guinea K000825956
    Jan 1, 2009 Corner, E.J. [SFN33410], Malaysia K000645931
    Jan 1, 2009 Djamhari [369a], Indonesia K000825923
    Jan 1, 2009 Lauterbach, C.A.G. [831], Papua New Guinea K000825961
    Jan 1, 2009 Telford, I.R. [10027], Australia K000825984
    Jan 1, 2009 Telford, I.R. [9996], Australia K000825983
    Jan 1, 2009 Mondi [43], Indonesia K000646862
    Jan 1, 2009 Lee, Y.F. [SAN102090], Malaysia K000646929
    Jan 1, 2009 Lee, Y.F. [SAN70830], Malaysia K000646938
    Jan 1, 2009 Gaerlan, F. [23039], Philippines K000825847
    Jan 1, 2009 Gaerlan, F. [19919], Philippines K000825863
    Jan 1, 2009 Gaerlan, F. [3069], Philippines K000825867
    Jan 1, 2009 Gaerlan, F. [4633], Philippines K000825874
    Jan 1, 2009 Gaerlan, F. [23342], Philippines K000825899
    Jan 1, 2009 Bidin, T. [SAN80688], Malaysia K000646930
    Jan 1, 2009 Amarillas, F.L. [25028], Philippines K000825868
    Jan 1, 2009 Adduru, M. [9], Philippines K000666622
    Jan 1, 2009 Kartawinata, K. [1071], Indonesia K000646847
    Jan 1, 2009 Noerkas [405], Indonesia K000646944
    Jan 1, 2009 Ismail, S. [15358] K000646963
    Jan 1, 2009 Kloss, C.B. [14647], Indonesia K000646828
    Jan 1, 2009 Elmer, A.D.E. [11115], Philippines K000666617 lectotype
    Jan 1, 2009 Elmer, A.D.E. [13348], Philippines K000666620
    Jan 1, 2009 Elmer, A.D.E. [7808], Philippines K000666624
    Jan 1, 2009 Elmer, A.D.E. [18101], Philippines K000825851
    Jan 1, 2009 Elmer, A.D.E. [12742], Philippines K000825853
    Jan 1, 2009 Elmer, A.D.E. [12178], Philippines K000825854
    Jan 1, 2009 Cuming, H. [693], Philippines K000666606
    Jan 1, 2009 Cuming, H. [1386], Philippines K000666734
    Jan 1, 2009 Cuming, H. [1386], Philippines K000666737
    Jan 1, 2009 Cuming, H. [1451], Philippines K000825858
    Jan 1, 2009 Cuming, H. [1451], Philippines K000825859
    Jan 1, 2009 Ramos, M. [41341], Philippines K000666621
    Jan 1, 2009 Ramos, M. [41873], Philippines K000666731 isotype
    Jan 1, 2009 Ramos, M. [41873], Philippines K000666732 isotype
    Jan 1, 2009 Ramos, M. [46933], Philippines K000666733
    Jan 1, 2009 Ramos, M. [32914], Philippines K000666735
    Jan 1, 2009 Ramos, M. [3281], Philippines K000666740 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2009 Ramos, M. [26289], Philippines K000825869
    Jan 1, 2009 Maingay, A.C. [1200], Peninsular Malaysia K000645986 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2009 Maingay, A.C. [2539], Malaysia K000645987
    Jan 1, 2009 Maingay, A.C. [2988], Malaysia K000645990
    Jan 1, 2009 Maingay, A.C. [1772], Malaysia K000645993
    Jan 1, 2009 Maingay, A.C. [1766], Peninsular Malaysia K001067666
    Jan 1, 2009 Dr. King's Collector [1737], Malaysia K000645929
    Jan 1, 2009 Dr. King's Collector [1016], Malaysia K000645939
    Jan 1, 2009 Dr. King's Collector [1670], Malaysia K000645995
    Jan 1, 2009 Dr. King's Collector [1482], Malaysia K000645999
    Jan 1, 2009 Williams, R.S. [1086], Philippines K000666618 syntype
    Jan 1, 2009 Williams, R.S. [1207], Philippines K000666619 syntype
    Jan 1, 2009 Williams, R.S. [2791], Philippines K000825906
    Jan 1, 2009 Henne, D. [s.n.], Queensland K001067679
    Jan 1, 2009 Alvarez, R.J. [23783], Philippines K000666623
    Jan 1, 2009 Alvarez, R.J. [23738], Philippines K000825862
    Jan 1, 2009 Croft, J.R. [LAE65388], Papua New Guinea K000670835
    Jan 1, 2009 Croft, J.R. [NGF15533], Papua New Guinea K000670836
    Jan 1, 2009 Croft, J.R. [NGF41415], Papua New Guinea K000670840
    Jan 1, 2009 Croft, J.R. [NGF41386], Papua New Guinea K000670845
    Jan 1, 2009 Yii, P.C. [S62314], Malaysia K000646960
    Jan 1, 2009 Arifin, Z. [1448], Indonesia K000646855
    Jan 1, 2009 Merrill, E.D. [299], Philippines K000666607
    Jan 1, 2009 Merrill, E.D. [2243], Philippines K000666743
    Jan 1, 2009 Merrill, E.D. [3044], Philippines K000825902
    Jan 1, 2009 Merrill, E.D. [1083], Philippines K000825903
    Jan 1, 2009 Merrill, E.D. [427], Philippines K000825907
    Jan 1, 2009 Merrill, E.D. [1173], Philippines K000825911
    Jan 1, 2009 Merrill, E.D. [899], Philippines K000825912
    Jan 1, 2009 Merrill, E.D. [2199], Philippines K000825913
    Jan 1, 2009 Teruya, Z. [585], Singapore K000645912
    Jan 1, 2009 Teruya, Z. [2600], Malaysia K000645913
    Jan 1, 2009 Purseglove, J.W. [4835], Malaysia K000825968
    Jan 1, 2009 Purseglove, J.W. [4974], Malaysia K000825971
    Jan 1, 2009 Lobb, T. [298], Singapore K000645918
    Jan 1, 2009 Lobb, T. [298], Singapore K000645915
    Jan 1, 2009 Soinin [SAN129242], Malaysia K000646939
    Jan 1, 2009 Frodin, D. [NGF26402], Papua New Guinea K000670853
    Jan 1, 2009 Madulid [36033], Philippines K000666752
    Jan 1, 2009 Madulid [18547], Philippines K000666609
    Jan 1, 2009 Madulid [23784], Philippines K000666611
    Jan 1, 2009 Pipoly [37834], Philippines K000666608
    Jan 1, 2009 Pipoly [38403], Philippines K000825897
    Jan 1, 2009 Barbon [2236], Philippines K000666753
    Jan 1, 2009 Barbon [1712], Philippines K000666754
    Jan 1, 2009 Barbon [6066], Philippines K000825848
    Jan 1, 2009 Barbon [5579], Philippines K000825861
    Jan 1, 2009 Barbon [5593], Philippines K000825866
    Jan 1, 2009 Barbon [1583], Philippines K000825870
    Jan 1, 2009 Barbon [2018], Philippines K000825916
    Jan 1, 2009 Anonymous [14943], Malaysia K000645922
    Jan 1, 2009 Anonymous [s.n.], Malaysia K000645988
    Jan 1, 2009 McDonald [3802], Indonesia K000670795
    Jan 1, 2009 Othman [43830], Malaysia K000825967
    Jan 1, 2009 Gaerlan [4704], Philippines K000666746
    Jan 1, 2009 Gaerlan [2888], Philippines K000666747
    Jan 1, 2009 Balgooy, M. van [6705], Indonesia K000646956
    Jan 1, 2009 Flood [s.n.], Indonesia K000646990
    Jan 1, 2009 Garcia [18298], Philippines K000666610
    Jan 1, 2009 Amin [SAN123366], Malaysia K000646925
    Jan 1, 2009 Amin [SAN120449], Malaysia K000646926
    Jan 1, 2009 Amin [SAN123257], Malaysia K000646936
    Jan 1, 2009 Amin [118265], Malaysia K000825988
    Jan 1, 2009 Amin [119803], Malaysia K000825990
    Jan 1, 2009 Amin [116289], Malaysia K000825993
    Jan 1, 2009 Romero, E.M. [29120], Philippines K000666741
    Jan 1, 2009 Reed, J.J. [SFN37416], Malaysia K000645924
    Jan 1, 2009 Reed, J.J. [SFN37416], Malaysia K000645925
    Jan 1, 2009 Soepadmog, E. [9175], Malaysia K000645930
    Jan 1, 2009 Anonymous {Ridley, H.N.] [15855], Thailand K000645933
    Jan 1, 2009 Anonymous {Ridley, H.N.] [14944], Malaysia K000645934
    Jan 1, 2009 Ranger, F. [Forest Ranger?] [10437], Malaysia K000645938
    Jan 1, 2009 Reed, J.G. [SFN37416], Malaysia K000645940
    Jan 1, 2009 Putz, F. [FRI023681], Malaysia K000645994
    Jan 1, 2009 Kessler, P.. [860], Indonesia K000646851
    Jan 1, 2009 Kessler, P.. [1901], Indonesia K000646852
    Jan 1, 2009 Wirianinata, H. [1350], Indonesia K000646860
    Jan 1, 2009 Kustaniah [1072], Indonesia K000646861
    Jan 1, 2009 Kamis [3033], Malaysia K000646919
    Jan 1, 2009 Creagh, C.M. G. [s.n.], Malaysia K000646920
    Jan 1, 2009 Creagh, C.M. G. [s.n.], Malaysia K000646922
    Jan 1, 2009 Creagh, C.M. G. [s.n.], Malaysia K000646924
    Jan 1, 2009 Burghes, P. [40401], Malaysia K000646927
    Jan 1, 2009 Fabia, M.P. [SAN25759], Malaysia K000646928
    Jan 1, 2009 Noordin, M. [A4], Malaysia K000646958
    Jan 1, 2009 Mirnanto, E. [1], Indonesia K000646978
    Jan 1, 2009 Boschproefst. [Boschproefstation] [13426], Indonesia K000646985
    Jan 1, 2009 Valston, T. [232], Indonesia K000646988
    Jan 1, 2009 Bateson, L. [137], Papua New Guinea K000670839
    Jan 1, 2009 Mueller, F J.H.von [s.n.], Queensland K001067678 isotype
    Jan 1, 2009 Ilias [51573], Malaysia K000825969
    Jan 1, 2009 Stone [429], Philippines K000825901
    Jan 1, 2009 Rahman, Ag. [90211], Malaysia K000825986
    Jan 1, 2009 Alidain Braim [94428], Malaysia K000825987
    Jan 1, 2009 Udasco, A. [27297], Philippines K000825845
    Jan 1, 2009 Ebalo, E.E. [1081], Philippines K000825891
    Jan 1, 2009 Namit, J. [35137], Malaysia K000825978
    Jan 1, 2009 Kinted, V. [19065], Malaysia K000825998
    Jan 1, 2009 Lee, F.Y. [107515], Malaysia K000826523
    Jan 1, 2009 Kunstler, H.N. [938], Peninsular Malaysia K000645944 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2006 Saete [589], Indonesia K000646970
    Jan 1, 2005 Ramadhanil [339], Indonesia K000646945
    Jan 1, 1996 Heunaka [880], Indonesia K000646969
    Feb 1, 1986 Mitchell, B.A. [80], Australia K000646824
    Jul 1, 1985 Powell, D.A. [840], Australia K000646820
    Jul 1, 1985 Powell, D.A. [746], Australia K000646821
    Jul 1, 1985 Powell, D.A. [746], Australia K000646822
    Jul 1, 1985 Powell, D.A. [161], Australia K000646823
    Jul 1, 1985 St. John, H. [26407], Australia K000646825
    Jul 1, 1985 Murray, J. [s.n.], Australia K000646826
    Haviland, G.D. [861], Malaysia K000825981
    Haviland, G.D. [861], Malaysia K000825982
    Saw, L.G. [FRI34480], Malaysia K000645942
    Ellen, R.F. [639], Indonesia K000646971
    Shah, M. [273], Malaysia K000645943
    Klunster, H.H. [5949], Peninsular Malaysia K000645945 Unknown type material
    Klunster, H.H. [4723], Peninsular Malaysia K000645946 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1767] K001114125
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1767] K001114126
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1767] K001114127
    Prescott, T.A.K. [16], Papua New Guinea K000939077
    Jan 1, 2001 Jones, R.J. [10392], Papua New Guinea Premna papuana K000172028
    Dallachy, J. [s.n.], Queensland Premna dallachyana K001067672 isolectotype
    Dallachy, J. [s.n.], Queensland Premna dallachyana K001067673 isotype
    Bowman, E.M. [s.n.], Queensland Premna dallachyana K001067671 Unknown type material
    Wright, C. [236], Japan Premna glabra K000884656
    Feb 1, 2001 Willis, F.R. [103], Indonesia Premna obtusifolia 72280.000
    Jan 1, 2001 Shea, G. [7355], Papua New Guinea Premna obtusifolia K000172029
    James, S.A. [SAJ093] Premna obtusifolia K000938882
    James, S.A. [SAJ079] Premna obtusifolia K000938883
    Bailey, F.M. [s.n.], Queensland Premna tateana K001067677 isotype

    Bibliography

    First published in Mant. Pl. 2: 253 (1771)

    Accepted by

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    Flora Zambesiaca

    • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 73 (1992)*.
    • Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 63 : 299 (1990).
    • Nicholson et al., Interpr. van Rheede’s Hort. Malab.: 262 (1988).
    • J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 7 : 13 (1984).
    • Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4 : 334 (1983).
    • Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4 : 342 (1983), comb. illegit.
    • Fosberg & Renvoize, Fl. Aldabra: 224, fig. 35, 6 (1980).
    • Taxon 2 : 88–89 (1953).
    • Fl. Gén. Indo-Chine 4 : 818 (1935), nom illegit. (superfl.).
    • Bentham, Fl. Austr. 5 : 58 (1870).

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • de Kok, R. (2012). The genus Premna L. (Lamiaceae) in the Flora Malesiana area Kew Bulletin 68: 55-84.
    • Turner, I.M., Xing, F. & Corlett, R.T. (2000). An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores The Raffles bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. 8: 23-116.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • Whitmore, T.C. (1966). Guide to the forests of the British Solomon islands: 1-208. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Nicholson et al., Interpr. van Rheede’s Hort. Malab.: 262 (1988) (detailed discussion).
    • Munir in Journ. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 7: 13 (1984).
    • L., Mant. Pl. Alt.: 253 (1771).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
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    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0