1. Family: Loganiaceae R.Br. ex Mart.
    1. Genus: Strychnos L.
      1. Strychnos spinosa Lam.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, W. Indian Ocean.

    [FWTA]

    Loganiaceae, C. F. A. Onochie & A. J. M. Leeuwenberg. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A small tree up to 20 ft. high with light spreading crown and branches armed with spines
    Indumentum
    Branchlets and leaves sometimes softly pubescent
    Flowers
    Flowers greenish-white, in short compound cymes
    Corolla
    Corolla not split
    Fruits
    Fruit with a hard yellow shell
    Ecology
    In savanna woodland.
    [FZ]

    Loganiaceae, A. J. M. Leeuwenberg. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

    Habit
    Deciduous shrub or small tree, (0·30)1–6(10) m. high, sometimes flowering on first year shoots (with small leaves) on old fire–cut stumps.
    Trunk
    Trunk 4–15 cm. in diam. (sometimes Huted), branched from below; bark pale to dark grey or brown, shallowly fissured, not or sometimes thinly corky, often scaly, sometimes blackened by bush fire, not lenticellate; wood hard, whitish, without bark–islets.
    Branches
    Branches sometimes deeply ringed at nodes, grey or brown, not lenticellate, often with curved or straight spines; branchlets glabrous or pubescent, green or yellow–green when fresh, green or brown and often sulcate when dry, sometimes terminating in a straight spine.
    Leaves
    Leaves on main axis sometimes ternate; petiole 2–10 mm. long, glabrous or pubescent; lamina coriaceous also when living, young thinner and papyraceous when dry, very variable in shape and size, orbicular, elliptic, narrowly elliptic, ovate, or obovate, 1–2(3) x as long as wide, sometimes comparatively wider or narrower on main axis, usually comparatively wider on flowering branches, 1·4–9·5 x 1·2–7·5 cm., rarely larger, up to 13·5 x 7·5 cm., emarginate, rounded to acute and often apiculate, sometimes acuminate (mostly in trees along water courses), or rarely abruptly acuminate at the apex, cuneate, less often rounded, or sometimes on main axis subcordate at the base, often with hair pockets in the angles of the main veins beneath, glabrous or pubescent on both sides (in sucker shoots and seedlings of plants with few hairs more hairy, smaller and cordate); 1–3 pairs of distinct secondary veins from above the base curved along the margin.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal, seemingly umbellate, congested or less often not, 1·5 x 1·5–5 x 3·5(6–5 x 7) cm., mostly many–flowered.
    Flowers
    Flowers 5–merous.
    Calyx
    Sepals pale green, connate at the base, narrowly triangular to linear, equal, subequal, or sometimes unequal, 2–6(10) x as long as wide, 1·5–6 x (0·3)0·5–1·2 mm., acuminate or subulate at the apex, minutely ciliate at the base or not, outside mostly sparsely pubescent at the base and glabrous at the apex or entirely glabrous, never with an even indumentum all over, inside glabrous and usually with some hairs at the base or sometimes minutely pubescent, without colleters.
    Corolla
    Corolla when mature 0·8–2·7 x as long as the calyx, .4–5(3·8–6) mm. long, pale green, greenish, or less often white, creamy, or yellow, glabrous or sparsely pubescent outside, inside with a narrow entire white–penicillate corona at the mouth of the tube; tube 1·2–2·7 x as long as the lobes, 2·5–3(2·2–4·4) x 2–3(3·5) mm., urceolate or campanulate, often somewhat contracted in the throat; lobes triangular, 1·2–1·8 x as long as wide, 1·2–2 x 1–1·5 mm., acute, erect or suberect.
    Stamens
    Stamens included; filaments glabrous, 0·7–1·5 x as long as the anthers, inserted at 0·4–0·8 mm. from the base of the corolla; anthers oblong or elliptic, 1·2–1·4 x 0·8–1 mm., ciliate with a villose or sometimes pilose indumentum all around by which they are coherent.
    Pistil
    Pistil pubescent, rarely obscurely so, glabrous just below the stigma, 1·8–2·4(3) mm. long; ovary ovoid, broadly ovoid, or globose, (1)1·2–1·6(2) x 1–1·3 mm., 1–celled; stigma subsessile, oblong.
    Placenta
    One large globose basal placenta with about 60–120 ovules.
    Fruits
    Fruit yellow or when nearly mature yellow–green or green, large, hard, resembling an orange or a grapefruit, globose, often slightly shining, with granular skin, 7–11(15) cm. in diam., with about 10–100 seeds, immature often slightly pear–shaped. Wall rather thick, hard, 2–5(8) mm., thick, thickened inside above the pedicel. Pulp yellow, edible.
    Seeds
    Seed ochraceous in fruit, very pale brown when dried up, darkening in rotten fruits, obliquely ovate or elliptic, flattened, more or less plano–convex, usually irregularly curved, about 1–2 x as long as wide, 11 x 6 x 2–23 x 18 x 5 mm., mostly smooth, very shortly pubescent.
    Testa
    Testa thick.
    [FTEA]

    Loganiaceae, E. A. Bruce & J. Lewis. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1960

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree with spreading habit, up to 6.5 m. high; bark sometimes reticulate and irregularly corky but never thick; young branchlets varying from pale to dark mottled or concolorous, glabrous to shortly pubescent, sometimes longitudinally ridged and often powdery corky; spines slender to stout, straight or curved, sometimes absent.
    Leaves
    Leaves shortly petiolate; lamina membranous to coriaceous, ovate, obovate or elliptic, 3–8 cm. long, 1.3–7 cm. wide, rounded, subacute or more rarely acute or emarginate and often apiculate at the apex, cuneate or more rarely rounded at the base, matt or shiny, 3–7-nerved at or just above the base, with hair-pockets sometimes visible in the angles, indumentum of lamina varying on both surfaces from pubescent to glabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes terminal; peduncle and pedicels spreading-pubescent.
    Calyx
    Calyx-lobes narrowly deltoid to linear, 3.5–5.5 mm. long, shorter or longer than the corolla, acuminate, usually glabrous except for the base, very rarely pubescent up to the lobes.
    Corolla
    Corolla greenish-white; lobes deltoid, subacute, about half the length of the corolla-tube, with dense hairs forming a ring at the base.
    Anthers
    Anthers densely bearded at the base.
    Ovary
    Ovary broadly ovoid, unilocular; ovules numerous.
    Fruits
    Fruit globose, 5–12 cm. in diameter; rind woody, yellow; seeds numerous, flat and disk-like, 1.5–2 cm. long, embedded in fleshy yellow edible pulp.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Mauritius, Réunion, Seychelles

    Strychnos spinosa Lam. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1967 Scott Elliot, G.F. [4801], Guinea K000426567 lectotype
    Jan 1, 1967 Kirk, J. [129], Malawi K000426782 paratype
    Jan 1, 1967 Schweinfurth, G. [1396], Sudan K000426643 holotype
    Jan 1, 1967 Welwitsch [4780], Angola K000426671
    Jan 1, 1967 Barter [1140], Nigeria K000426566 isotype
    Jan 1, 1967 Barter [1705], Nigeria K000426568
    Jan 1, 1967 Holst, C. [2670], Tanzania K000426676
    Jan 1, 1967 Holst, C. [2095], Tanzania K000426675 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1967 Buchanan, J. [47], Malawi K000426781 paratype
    Jan 1, 1963 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [4288], Burkina Faso K000386624
    Jan 1, 1962 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [4401], Burkina Faso K000386620
    Jan 1, 1962 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [4368], Burkina Faso K000386621
    Jan 1, 1962 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [4408], Burkina Faso K000386622
    Jan 1, 1962 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [4399], Burkina Faso K000386623
    Jan 1, 1962 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [4405], Burkina Faso K000386625
    Richards, H.M. [22135], Zambia 36229.000
    Harris, T. [131], Mozambique K000545113
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1588] K001113534

    First published in Tabl. Encycl. 2: 38 (1794)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Autrey, J.C., Bosser, J. & Ferguson, I.K. (eds.) (2005). Flore des Mascareignes 121-126: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. & Bamps, P. (1979). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Loganiaceae: 1-149. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Verdoorn in Fl. S. Afr. 26: 147.
    • Bruce & Lewis in F.T.E.A. Loganiac. 20, fig. 3, 15-16 (1960)
    • E. A. Brace in Kew Bull. 10: 42 (1955)
    • Aubrév. Fl. For. Soud.-Guin. 438, t. 96, 1-4
    • Illustr. 2: 38 (1794)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Autrey, J.C., Bosser, J. & Ferguson, I.K. (eds.) (2005). Flore des Mascareignes 121-126: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. & Bamps, P. (1979). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Loganiaceae: 1-149. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • E. A. Bruce in Kew Bulletin 1955: 40 (1955).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 277 (1949).
    • Duvign. in Lejeunia 13: 109 (1949).
    • A. Chev. in Rév. Bot. Appl. 27: 355 (1947).
    • Hutch. & Dalz., Flora of West Tropical Africa 2: 22, fig. 186 (1931) excl. syn. S. djalonis A. Chev. & spec. Chev.
    • Baker in Flora of Tropical Africa 4 (1): 536 (1903), excl. spec. Welw. ex Loanda.
    • Lam., Illustr. 2: 38 (1797).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0