1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Rotheca Raf.
      1. Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane & Mabb.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Eritrea to S. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Type
    Type from Ethiopia.
    Habit
    Shrub up to 3 m tall, irregularly branched, or a small tree up to 10 m tall; older branches with rough deeply fissured bark; twigs pale brown, ridged or 4-angular, pithy in the centre, glabrous to velvety hairy Shrub or a small tree up to 3.8 m tall; branches dark brown, glabrous Shrub 1–1.8 m tall Shrub 1.5–4 m tall, glabrous or sparsely finely appressed pubescent on the young branches, calyx and nerves of the leaf lower surface Shrub 1–5 m tall, sometimes scandent to c. 7 m, or a tree up to 8 m tall Shrub up to 3 m tall, irregularly branched, or a small tree up to 10 m tall; older branches with rough deeply fissured bark; twigs pale brown, ridged or 4-angular, pithy in the centre, glabrous to velvety hairy. Shrub 0.9–1.3 m tall
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3–4; lamina 2–16(19.5) × 0.4–6(10) cm, narrowly to broadly elliptic, ovate-elliptic or oblanceolate, oblong or obovate, usually small but in cultivation can attain large dimensions, acute to acuminate at the apex, cuneate to ± attenuate at the base, entire to coarsely serrate, glabrous or pubescent to densely velvety hairy, glandular-punctate beneath, ± sessile or petiole up to 15 mm long, with unpleasant smell when crushed Leaves opposite, not clustered toward the apex of the branches, up to 6.5 × 2.8 cm, obovate-rhombic to oblong-obovate, obtuse or subobtuse at the apex, broadly cuneate in the basal half and narrowly long decurrent almost to the point of attachment; margins distinctly coarsely crenate-dentate, rarely obscurely so; blade ± discolorous, thinly coriaceous to membranous, usually glabrous on both surfaces or sometimes sparsely pilose beneath, with nerves fine, inconspicuously reticulate Leaves opposite, ± sessile, ± clustered towards the top of the lateral branches, small, up to 3.8 × 2.7 cm, obovate or spathulate, rounded or sub-obtuse at the apex, ± attenuate at the base, entire or obscurely dentate in the upper 1/3, thinly coriaceous when dry, concolorous, drying dark, glabrous or sparsely pubescent on the nerves beneath, minutely punctate beneath; midrib and nerves impressed above, prominent beneath, reticulation conspicuous on the lower surface Leaves opposite, or sometimes 3-whorled, petiolate; lamina in mature leaves (5)6.5–13.5(15–17) × (2.5)3–6.5 cm, usually more than twice as long as wide, elliptic, or sometimes ovate or lanceolate, acute at the apex, entire or ± remotely denticulate on the margin, conspicuously coarsely reticulate and sometimes minutely punctate beneath, membranous and ± concolorous, sometimes drying nearly black; petiole up to 2 cm long, slender Leaves opposite or 3-whorled, petiolate, clustered towards the branch apices, sometimes the flowering branches and branchlets leafy along the entire length; lamina usually twice as long as wide, 3–7.5(9) × 2.2–4.2 cm, sometimes up to 16.5(23.5) × 10(11.5) cm in sucker or coppice growth, smallest on lateral branchlets, oblanceolate to spathulate with the apical 2/3 elliptical to obovate or ovate, acute to obtuse or somewhat acuminate at the apex, cuneate to ± attenuate into the petiole in the basal 1/3, sometimes narrowly long decurrent almost to the point of attachment producing a winged petiole, entire to dentate or sometimes irregularly lobed or crenate-lobed on the margins, usually strongly discolorous, drying nearly black on upper surface and greyish-white or yellowish beneath, ± pubescent on both surfaces or densely tomentose beneath, particularly in young leaves Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3–4; lamina 2–16(19.5) × 0.4–6(10) cm, narrowly to broadly elliptic, ovate-elliptic or oblanceolate, oblong or obovate, usually small but in cultivation can attain large dimensions, acute to acuminate at the apex, cuneate to ± attenuate at the base, entire to coarsely serrate, glabrous or pubescent to densely velvety hairy, glandular-punctate beneath, ± sessile or petiole up to 15 mm long, with unpleasant smell when crushed. Leaves opposite, subsessile to shortly petiolate; lamina up to 10 × 2.4 cm, elliptic, acute, entire or sparsely dentate, sparsely shortly pilose with hairs appressed on upper surface and spreading and more densely arranged on the nerves beneath, thinly coriaceous, concolorous, light green and paler beneath, not becoming dark on drying, not punctate with reticulation inconspicuous; midrib rather prominent and whitish beneath
    Flowers
    Flowers in few–several-flowered dichasial cymes arranged in unelaborated and lax to quite extensive and elongate panicles 6.5–15(30) cm long; peduncles 0–7 cm long, secondary peduncles up to 4 cm long; apparent stalks 1–2.5 cm long but true pedicels 3–5 mm long Flowers in few–several-flowered dichasial cymes arranged in unelaborated and lax to quite extensive and elongate panicles 6.5–15(30) cm long; peduncles 0–7 cm long, secondary peduncles up to 4 cm long; apparent stalks 1–2.5 cm long but true pedicels 3–5 mm long.
    Corolla
    Corolla asymmetrical in bud expanding abruptly on anterior side, usually greenish with a white to pale blue to lilac limb, the median lobe dark blue; tube 5–7 mm long, pubescent at the throat; lobes unequal, (0.6)1–1.9(2) cm × (1.5)3.5–7.5 mm, the upper obovate, the lower one spathulate and much larger than the other four Corolla deep sky-blue; limb when in bud c. 5.5 mm in diameter, subspherical, glabrous, almost black Corolla deep sky-blue, glabrous outside. Corolla usually greenish with a white to pale blue to lilac or purplish limb, the median lobe dark blue; ± pubescent or tomentose, limb glabrous when in bud Corolla usually with the 5 lobes all of the same colour, either lilac, blue or bluish-purple, rarely with 4 lobes greenish and the fifth (median lobe) coloured Corolla asymmetrical in bud expanding abruptly on anterior side, usually greenish with a white to pale blue to lilac limb, the median lobe dark blue; tube 5–7 mm long, pubescent at the throat; lobes unequal, (0.6)1–1.9(2) cm × (1.5)3.5–7.5 mm, the upper obovate, the lower one spathulate and much larger than the other four.
    Stamens
    Stamens and style long-exserted and curving upwards
    Fruits
    Fruit ± black, 5–6 × 8–10 mm, subglobose, depressed, mostly deeply 4-lobed, glabrous. Fruit shiny black when ripe. Fruit 7 × 9–12 mm. Fruit shiny black when ripe. Fruit black when ripe. Fruit ± black, 5–6 × 8–10 mm, subglobose, depressed, mostly deeply 4-lobed, glabrous.
    Note
    subsp. namibiensis, from Namibia, differs mainly in having the flowers arranged in axillary cymes not terminal panicles, and in the corolla being white or with 4 lobes whitish-green and the median lobe blue, not with all lobes violet.  Subspecies mafiensis Verdc., ussukumae Verdc., austromonticola Verdc., napperae Verdc. and muenzneri Verdc. occur in Tanzania only. Fanshawe 1842 (FHO; K), from Serenje (Zambia, C:), referred to Clerodendrum myricoides by White (For. Fl. N. Rhod.: 366), approaches  var. capiriensis , but has longer branches ending in panicles, and has a pubescent indumentum particularly on the branches but also on the leaves and inflorescences.  This is considered to be intermediate between var. capiriense and var. discolor .   Other Zambian material, e.g., Robinson 2613 (K; SRGH) from Mkushi and Richards 1975, from Mbala, also approaches var. capiriense in possessing obovate leaves and short calyx lobes (c. 1 mm long).  However, the ± dense indumentum, the larger discolorous leaves and the terminal inflorescences place these in var. discolor. Some specimens of var. discolor from Malawi, [ Richards 10575 (K; SRGH) and Pawek 6278 (K; SRGH) from Karonga Distr., and Brummitt, Polhill & Banda 16109 (K) from Kasungu Distr.], approach var. eleanorae in the shape of their leaves.  However, the smaller distinctly discolorous leaves, and the somewhat crisped hairs of the indumentum place these specimens clearly in var. discolor . This variety approaches C. luembense De Wild. in the nature of its indumentum, but differs in the shape of the leaves. The specimens McClounie 27 and 107, both from Nyika Plateau (Malawi), collected in Nymkowa Hills and Mwanemba respectively, have narrow lanceolate leaves acute at the base and apex, and these are considered to represent one extreme in the range of leaf variation in var. discolor .   Swynnerton (1296, K) records that:  i) the chiNdao name is “Bukusa”, and ii)  the wood is much used for “fire sticks”, for lighting fires by friction. Specimens with leaves very attenuate towards the base and a looser indumentum than is usual are taken to be intermediate between var. discolor forma discolor and var. myricoides .  Some specimens with unusually large leaves, e.g. Torre & Correia 14969 (LISC) from Mozambique [Zambesia Prov., 3 km from Ile Mt.] with leaves up to 24.5 × 11.6 cm, and Faulkner 104 (K) from Mozambique [Quelimane Distr., Tacuane] with leaves up to 17.8 × 8 cm, probably come from sucker or coppice growth. Macêdo 5130, from Mozambique [Tete Prov., between Marueira and Songo (LISC; LMA; LMU; SRGH)], appears to be different because it has internodes longer towards the end of the branches with leaves persistent on the flowering branches and all ± similar in shape size and colour.  However, such characters often in combination also occur in material that is clearly forma discolorMacêdo 5130 is therefore included in forma discolor. var. myricoides appears to be more coastal in its distribution, and although it extends somewhat inland at lower altitudes it has not been recorded growing naturally in those areas where var. discolor (Klotzsch) Baker is more frequent.  The specimens of var. myricoides seen from Harare are probably from cultivated plants. Distinguished from forma alatipetiolata by the larger broader leaves, up to 12.5 × 8.7 cm, the leaf margin irregularly lobed or crenate-lobed, and by the lobed usually undulate petiole wings. The reflexed calyx lobes are found in all flowers of this forma, whether opened or still in bud.  Sometimes the calyx lobes of forma discolor can be reflexed, but in these cases it appears that this has been the result of placing the specimens in a plant press.  Specimens of forma discolor in which reflexed calyx lobes have been observed include: Gilges 507 (K; PRE; SRGH) and Robinson 2935 (K; M) from Zambia; Goldsmith 101/61 (K; LISC; SRGH); Gosnell 115 (SRGH); Leach 11286 (BR; COI; K; LISC; M; SRGH); O.B. Miller 1140 (K; PRE; SRGH); Noel 2374 (BM; COI; LISC; SRGH); Norrgrann 399 (K; SRGH); Monro s.n. and 2284 (BM) from Zimbabwe and Torre & Correia 13983 (LISC) from Mozambique. Distinguished from forma discolor by the subcylindrical calyx tube, and distinguished from forma reflexilobata and from specimens of forma discolor with some reflexed calyx lobes, by the relatively shorter calyx lobes. Distinguished from forma discolor by the leaf lamina narrowly long decurrent almost to the point of attachment, producing a winged petiole with entire margins.   Davies 2540 (SRGH), cited above, differs somewhat in its smaller leaves, small floral buds and small calyx 2.75–3 mm long, with lobes c. 1.5 mm long, but cannot otherwise be kept separate from var. myricoides . In a few specimens from Mozambique the leaves are very large, up to c. 17 cm long (cf. R. Fernandes, op. cit.: note on C. schlechteri ).  These may come from sucker or coppice shoots or plants from shady places. Differs from typical R. myricoides in its calyx lobes which are c. 2.75 mm long, slightly exceeding the calyx tube in length, and which are lanceolate narrowing slightly towards the acute apex.
    Branches
    Branches subterete to sulcate and greyish-black towards the base, 4-angled and brownish-red towards the apex; lateral branches short, leafy and flowering, sparsely pilose towards the base Penultimate branches ascending, 4-angled with flattish-sulcate faces, swollen at the nodes and with very marked leaf scars, usually leafy only towards the apex, often with ± short lateral leafy flowering branchlets (these sometimes so short that the cymes they bear appear to be inserted directly on the main branch), ± densely greyish-whitish pubescent, particularly on the young parts, with soft, slightly crispate to spreading hairs; internodes up to 8.5 cm long Branches straight, 4-angled and ribbed on the angles, longitudinally striate between, branches somewhat densely hispid with short spreading hairs, younger shoots and flowering branches with longer denser hairs
    Inflorescences
    Cymes 2–3, few-flowered, axillary from the leaf cluster on the short lateral branches, not forming a paniculate inflorescence; peduncles up to 2.5 cm long, spreading, slender, glabrous, black; pedicels 2.5–3 mm long Cymes few, lax, glabrous, borne in the axils of the uppermost leaves, not forming a terminal panicle Cymes arranged in loose terminal panicles up to 15.5 cm long, the two lowermost cymes sometimes in the axils of the upper pair of leaves; peduncles and pedicels glabrous or sometimes pubescent Cymes 2–5-flowered, usually forming terminal panicles with only the two lowermost cymes in the axils of the upper pair of leaves, or sometimes the cymes all subtended by leaves towards the ends of the branches and branchlets and then not forming distinct panicles; peduncles of the lower cymes 1.8–4.5 cm long; pedicels 2–4 mm long; inflorescence axis and branches spreading-hairy; bracts c. 12 × 3.5 mm, discolorous and with an indumentum similar to that of the leaves Cymes few, axillary, solitary, 3-flowered in cymes borne in the axils of the uppermost leaves, 1-flowered in the sessile foliaceous bracts above; lowermost peduncles 3.3–4 cm long, curving downwards, the upper successively shorter, peduncles and pedicels spreading pilose
    Calyx
    Calyx c. 3 mm long, glabrous, drying black; lobes c. 1 mm long, semicircular Calyx often entirely purplish or crimson-margined, glabrous to hairy; tube cupular, c. 2.5 mm long; lobes semicircular to ovate or triangular, 1.2–5 mm long, quite rounded, obtuse or ± acute Calyx 2.5–3 mm long, campanulate, ± pilose below; lobes c. 1 mm long and 1.75 mm wide at the base, purple edged Calyx small, 2–3.5 mm long, campanulate, usually glabrous or rarely sparsely appressed pilose; lobes 0.5–1.5 mm long, semicircular Calyx (2.75)3.25–5 mm long, campanulate, usually glabrous; lobes less than half as long as the tube, usually semicircular or sometimes oblong or lanceolate Calyx (2–3)3.5–5.5(7) mm long, ± pubescent; lobes (1.5)2–2.5(3.5) mm long, usually semicircular, sometimes oblong-semicircular or lanceolate, usually erect or sometimes ± reflexed, ciliate on the margin Calyx often entirely purplish or crimson-margined, glabrous to hairy; tube cupular, c. 2.5 mm long; lobes semicircular to ovate or triangular, 1.2–5 mm long, quite rounded, obtuse or ± acute.
    Ecology
    Not seen elsewhere.  On rocky hill top, amongst granite rocks; c. 1250 m. Not known elsewhere. Sand forest patch; c. 480 m. Miombo and open mixed deciduous woodlands, on sandy soils and rocky slopes, on lake shores and beside seasonal rivers often among boulders, in riverine forest, and on margins of swamp forest and evergreen rainforest, in thickets on termitaria and mutemwa thickets on Kalahari Sand; also in old cultivation; 70–1600 m. Coastal plains and dunes on sandy soil, usually in dense thickets; also in wooded grassland, deciduous woodland, riverine forest and low altitude mixed evergreen forest; 5–1000 m. Not known elsewhere. Sand veld, on rocky outcrops and amongst boulders; also in riverine forest; 1000–1400 m. Not known elsewhere. In deciduous forest; 700–1500 m. Not known elsewhere. Ecology unknown. Granite outcrops, amongst rocks; c. 800 m. "In thicket understorey of Acacia woodland ""munga"" on a limestone scarp; c. 1280 m." Not known elsewhere. Not known elsewhere. Ecology not known. In shelter of granite boulder; c. 1024 m. Not known elsewhere.
    Distribution
    Also in Angola. District code: MOZ Z, ZIM E. District code: MOZ MS. District code: MOZ T. District code: MOZ C. District code: ZIM B, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ T, MOZ Z, MOZ MS. District code: BOT SE, BOT B, ZIM W, ZIM C. District code: ZIM C. District code: ZIM E, ZIM N. District code: ZIM C, ZIM E, MOZ N, MOZ Z, MOZ MS, MOZ GI, MOZ M. Zimbabwe Zambia Zimbabwe Zambia Botswana Zambia Zimbabwe Mozambique Zimbabwe Also in Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Dem. Rep. Congo and Angola. Congo. Also in Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Dem. Rep. Congo and Angola. Zimbabwe Mozambique Mozambique Mozambique Zambia Mozambique Malawi
    Stamen and Style
    Stamens and style long-exserted and curving upwards.
    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Shrub, subshrub or subshrubby herb, rarely a small tree, usually much branched, 0.9–2.4(–6) m. tall; branches pale brown, ridged or angular, at length with ± corky bark, glabrous to velvety.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3–4; blades narrowly to broadly elliptic, ovate-elliptic or oblanceolate, oblong or obovate, 2–15(–19.5) cm. long, 0.4–6(–10) cm. wide, usually small but in cultivation can attain large dimensions, acute to acuminate at the apex, cuneate at the base (in one subsp. narrowed to an oblong base), entire to coarsely serrate, glabrous or pubescent to densely velvety, glandular-punctate beneath, ± sessile, or petiole up to 1.5 cm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers in few–several-flowered dichasial cymes arranged in unelaborated and lax to quite extensive and elongate panicles 6.5–15(–30) cm. long; peduncles 0–7 cm. long, secondary peduncles up to 4 cm. long; apparent stalks 1–2.5 cm. long but true pedicels 3–5 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx often entirely purplish or crimson-margined, glabrous to hairy; tube cupular, ± 2.5 mm. long; lobes semicircular to ovate or triangular, 1.2–5 mm. long, quite rounded, obtuse or ± acute.
    Corolla
    Corolla usually greenish with white to pale blue to lilac limb, the anterior lobe dark blue; tube 5–7 mm. long, pubescent at the throat; lobes unequal, (0.6–)1–1.9(–2) cm. long, (1.5–)3.5–7.5 mm. wide, the upper obovate, the lower one spathulate.
    Stamen and Style
    Stamens and style well exserted.
    Fruits
    Fruit ± black, subglobose, depressed, 5–6 mm. long, 8–10 mm. wide, mostly deeply 4-lobed, glabrous.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Caprivi Strip, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Trinidad-Tobago

    Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane & Mabb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2011 Congdon, T.C.E. [357], Tanzania Clerodendrum myricoides K000735174
    Jan 1, 1989 Ethiopia Clerodendrum myricoides K000192893
    Jan 1, 1989 unknown [330], Ethiopia Clerodendrum myricoides K000192892
    Jan 1, 1989 Hildebrandt, J.M. [1522], Somalia Clerodendrum myricoides K000192898
    Jan 1, 1989 Gerrard, W.T. [382], South Africa Clerodendrum myricoides K000414504
    Jan 1, 1989 Krause [338], South Africa Clerodendrum myricoides K000193002 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1989 Krause [333], South Africa Clerodendrum myricoides K000414501 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1989 Krause [333], South Africa Clerodendrum myricoides K000414502
    Jan 1, 1989 Krause [335], South Africa Clerodendrum myricoides K000414503
    Jan 1, 1989 [illegible] [469 - 470], Ethiopia Clerodendrum myricoides K000192894
    Jan 1, 1989 s.coll. [s.n.], Uganda Clerodendrum myricoides K001097087 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1989 s.coll. [s.n.], Uganda Clerodendrum myricoides K001097088 isotype
    Milne-Redhead, E. [8329], Tanzania Clerodendrum myricoides 28479.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [8629], Tanzania Clerodendrum myricoides 31165.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [9724], Tanzania Clerodendrum myricoides 31217.000
    Souza, V.C. [5448], Brazil Clerodendrum myricoides K001218613
    Souza, V.C. [5448], Brazil Clerodendrum myricoides K001218614

    First published in Novon 8: 205 (1998)

    Accepted by

    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Curtis, B. & Mannheimer, C. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia: 1-688. The National Botanical Research Institute, Windhoek.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

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    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
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    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0