1. Family: Asteraceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Gymnanthemum Cass.
      1. Gymnanthemum exsertiflorum (Baker) H.Rob.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania to S. Tropical Africa.


    Compositae, G. V. Pope. Flora Zambesiaca 6:1. 1992

    A bushy shrub or small, branched tree up to c. 6 m. tall.
    Stems with grey, rough, longitudinally fissured bark.
    Branches densely appressed-pubescent, the indumentum of T-shaped hairs.
    Leaves petiolate; petiole up to c. 4 cm. long, indumentum similar to that of branches; lamina up to c. 23 x 9 cm., ovate to lanceolate, tapering to apex, base rounded sometimes unequally, or broadly cuneate, margins entire sometimes obscurely serrate, upper surface glabrous and somewhat shiny, lower sparsely to densely pubescent or appressed tomentellous, indumentum of fine ± matted T-shaped hairs, nervation somewhat prominent below.
    Capitula very numerous in ± dense clusters up to c. 18 cm. across, or much fewer in lax terminal clusters, capitula stalks 3–15 mm. long densely pubescent.
    Involucres mostly 4.5–6 x 2–3.5 mm., subspherical to narrowly ellipsoid-cylindrical, ± contracted at mouth, less often 8–16 x 6–11 mm. and obovoid-oblong; phyllaries tightly appressed imbricate increasing in size towards the inside, outermost from c. 1 mm. long and ovate-acute, inner mostly to c. 6 mm. long, less often to c. 11 x 2–3 mm. and oblanceolate to very narrowly elliptic, apices acute to rounded submucronate, lamina somewhat cartilaginous, soon glabrescent, margins subscarious and ciliate.
    Florets 4–20 per capitulum; corollas purplish-mauve or fading white, 7–11 mm. long narrowly funnel-shaped glabrous.
    Achenes 3–5 mm. long, narrowly 2–3-angular turbinate, obscurely 5–10-ribbed or smooth, glabrous and ± glandular between ribs; pappus exserted beyond involucre and shaving-brush-like, outer pappus of short linear-lanceolate scales; inner of white or sordid flattened setae 6–9 mm. long closely serrulate-barbellate.
    Distinguished from V. bellinghamii S. Moore on leaf size and shape V. exsertiflora exhibits a similar pattern of variation in the inflorescence and involucre size and shape, namely a reduction in the number of capitula with a corresponding increase in size.

    Compositae, H. Beentje, C. Jeffrey & D.J.N. Hind. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

    Shrub or small tree 2-6 m tall; bark dark grey, rough, longitudinally fissured or corrugated; stems densely tomentose with asymmetrically T-shaped hairs.
    Leaves petiolate, elliptic to ovate, 6.5-23 cm long, 2.6-9 cm wide, base cuneate to rounded, margins entire or minutely sinuate-denticulate, apex obscurely acuminate, apiculate, dark green and glossy, glabrous except for midrib above, white- or grey-tomentellous or less often -pubescent beneath; petiole 1.3-4 cm long.
    Capitula numerous in dense terminal compound corymbiform cymes; stalks of individual capitula 3-15 mm, densely pubescent; involucre 4.5-6(-14?) mm long, cylindrical in the north, ovoid in the south; phyllaries 5-6-seriate, erect, appressed, green or grey, glossy, the outer shortest, broadly ovate to elliptic, obtuse to rounded, obscurely apiculate, the innermost 4.3-5.6 mm long.
    Florets 4-20 per capitulum; corolla white, 5.5-8.5 mm long, lobes glabrous, 2.2-3 mm long.
    Achenes 3-5 mm long, obscurely 5-7-ribbed, glabrous, glandular between the ribs; outer pappus of oblong to linear laciniate scales 0.5-1.5 mm long, inner pappus whitish or pale yellow, 5-9 mm long.



    Native to:

    Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Gymnanthemum exsertiflorum (Baker) H.Rob. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 1, 1987 Richards, H.M. [1529], Zambia Vernonia exsertiflora var. tenuicalyx K000273040
    Bidgood, S. [6356], Tanzania Vernonia exsertiflora var. tenuicalyx K000468069
    Jan 1, 1997 Goetze, W. [1018], Tanzania Vernonia exsertiflora K000272962
    Tanner, R. [432], Tanzania Vernonia exsertiflora 16246.000
    Bidgood, S. [5570], Tanzania Vernonia exsertiflora K000468854
    Welwitsch [3261], Angola Vernonia exsertiflora K000273140 Unknown type material
    Welwitsch [3260], Angola Vernonia exsertiflora K000273141 Unknown type material

    First published in Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 112(1): 241 (1999)

    Accepted by

    • Roskov Y. & al. (eds.) (2018). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands.


    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0