1. Family: Asteraceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Gymnanthemum Cass.
      1. Gymnanthemum exsertiflorum (Baker) H.Rob.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania to S. Tropical Africa.

    [FZ]

    Compositae, G. V. Pope. Flora Zambesiaca 6:1. 1992

    Habit
    A bushy shrub or small, branched tree up to c. 6 m. tall.
    Stem
    Stems with grey, rough, longitudinally fissured bark.
    Branches
    Branches densely appressed-pubescent, the indumentum of T-shaped hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate; petiole up to c. 4 cm. long, indumentum similar to that of branches; lamina up to c. 23 x 9 cm., ovate to lanceolate, tapering to apex, base rounded sometimes unequally, or broadly cuneate, margins entire sometimes obscurely serrate, upper surface glabrous and somewhat shiny, lower sparsely to densely pubescent or appressed tomentellous, indumentum of fine ± matted T-shaped hairs, nervation somewhat prominent below.
    Capitulum
    Capitula very numerous in ± dense clusters up to c. 18 cm. across, or much fewer in lax terminal clusters, capitula stalks 3–15 mm. long densely pubescent.
    Involucre
    Involucres mostly 4.5–6 x 2–3.5 mm., subspherical to narrowly ellipsoid-cylindrical, ± contracted at mouth, less often 8–16 x 6–11 mm. and obovoid-oblong; phyllaries tightly appressed imbricate increasing in size towards the inside, outermost from c. 1 mm. long and ovate-acute, inner mostly to c. 6 mm. long, less often to c. 11 x 2–3 mm. and oblanceolate to very narrowly elliptic, apices acute to rounded submucronate, lamina somewhat cartilaginous, soon glabrescent, margins subscarious and ciliate.
    Florets
    Florets 4–20 per capitulum; corollas purplish-mauve or fading white, 7–11 mm. long narrowly funnel-shaped glabrous.
    Fruits
    Achenes 3–5 mm. long, narrowly 2–3-angular turbinate, obscurely 5–10-ribbed or smooth, glabrous and ± glandular between ribs; pappus exserted beyond involucre and shaving-brush-like, outer pappus of short linear-lanceolate scales; inner of white or sordid flattened setae 6–9 mm. long closely serrulate-barbellate.
    Diagnostic
    Distinguished from V. bellinghamii S. Moore on leaf size and shape V. exsertiflora exhibits a similar pattern of variation in the inflorescence and involucre size and shape, namely a reduction in the number of capitula with a corresponding increase in size.
    [FTEA]

    Compositae, H. Beentje, C. Jeffrey & D.J.N. Hind. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree 2-6 m tall; bark dark grey, rough, longitudinally fissured or corrugated; stems densely tomentose with asymmetrically T-shaped hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate, elliptic to ovate, 6.5-23 cm long, 2.6-9 cm wide, base cuneate to rounded, margins entire or minutely sinuate-denticulate, apex obscurely acuminate, apiculate, dark green and glossy, glabrous except for midrib above, white- or grey-tomentellous or less often -pubescent beneath; petiole 1.3-4 cm long.
    Capitulum
    Capitula numerous in dense terminal compound corymbiform cymes; stalks of individual capitula 3-15 mm, densely pubescent; involucre 4.5-6(-14?) mm long, cylindrical in the north, ovoid in the south; phyllaries 5-6-seriate, erect, appressed, green or grey, glossy, the outer shortest, broadly ovate to elliptic, obtuse to rounded, obscurely apiculate, the innermost 4.3-5.6 mm long.
    Florets
    Florets 4-20 per capitulum; corolla white, 5.5-8.5 mm long, lobes glabrous, 2.2-3 mm long.
    Fruits
    Achenes 3-5 mm long, obscurely 5-7-ribbed, glabrous, glandular between the ribs; outer pappus of oblong to linear laciniate scales 0.5-1.5 mm long, inner pappus whitish or pale yellow, 5-9 mm long.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Gymnanthemum exsertiflorum (Baker) H.Rob. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 1, 1987 Richards, H.M. [1529], Zambia Vernonia exsertiflora var. tenuicalyx K000273040
    Bidgood, S. [6356], Tanzania Vernonia exsertiflora var. tenuicalyx K000468069
    Jan 1, 1997 Goetze, W. [1018], Tanzania Vernonia exsertiflora K000272962
    Tanner, R. [432], Tanzania Vernonia exsertiflora 16246.000
    Bidgood, S. [5570], Tanzania Vernonia exsertiflora K000468854
    Welwitsch [3261], Angola Vernonia exsertiflora K000273140 Unknown type material
    Welwitsch [3260], Angola Vernonia exsertiflora K000273141 Unknown type material

    First published in Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 112(1): 241 (1999)

    Accepted by

    • Roskov Y. & al. (eds.) (2018). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0