1. Family: Asteraceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Gymnanthemum Cass.
      1. Gymnanthemum myrianthum (Hook.f.) H.Rob.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa.

    [FWTA]

    Compositae, C. D. Adams. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Flowers
    Flower-heads in dense rounded clusters
    Florets
    Florets bluish-mauve.
    Habit
    A shrub about 12 ft. high
    [FWTA]

    Compositae, C. D. Adams. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A shrub or small soft-wooded tree 10-20 ft. high
    Inflorescences
    Numerous small heads of white florets in dense terminal corymbose panicles.
    [FTEA]

    Compositae, H. Beentje, C. Jeffrey & D.J.N. Hind. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree, sometimes a woody herb, 1.5-6 m tall; stems few to many, branches lax, at first densely crispate-tomentose with simple or incipiently asymmetrically T-shaped hairs, granulose-glandular, later developing projecting lenticels and grey bark.
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate or especially the upper sessile, elliptic or ovate, 11-50 cm long, 2.5-23 cm wide, base cordate or rarely rounded, sometimes attenuate in sessile leaves, margins serrate or coarsely so with apiculate teeth, apex acute (rarely obtuse), thinly shortly pubescent and glabrescent above, thinly pubescent to densely whitish-tomentose beneath; petioles up to 8 cm long, sometimes with a narrow wing, often with suborbicular auricles at the base.
    Capitulum
    Capitula numerous in very large compound thyrsoid cymes; stalks of individual capitula densely tomentose; involucre narrowly ovoid-cylindrical or narrowly cylindrical, 3.5-7 mm long; phyllaries 3-6-seriate, appressed but later spreading and the inner becoming caducous, green, ± pubescent, the inner sometimes tinged purplish at the apex, ovate, broadly ovate or elliptic, subacute or rounded, minutely apiculate, the inner acute to obtuse, 4-6.8 mm long.
    Florets
    Florets 2-6 per capitulum; corolla scented, mauve or purplish, fading to white when old, 6-10 mm long, lobes 2-3 mm long, glabrous.
    Fruits
    Achenes subcylindric, 2.5-4.3 mm long, strongly 10-ribbed, ascending-pubescent or glabrous except at the base; outer pappus of inconspicuous narrow scales 0.2-1.7 mm long, inner pappus white, 5-8 mm long.
    Figures
    Fig. 41/6-8, p. 197.
    Habitat
    Evergreen forest clearings and margins, riverine forest, tall grassland and in cultivated areas; 850-2400 m
    Distribution
    widespread in tropical Africa from Sierra Leone to Sudan and Ethiopia to South Africa K3 K4/K6 K5 K7 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2
    [FZ]

    Compositae, G. V. Pope. Flora Zambesiaca 6:1. 1992

    Habit
    A spreading shrub 1.5–6 m. tall.
    Stem
    Stems few to many, stout; branches lax, ± angular when young, often sparsely tuberculate-lenticellate, pubescent to tawny-tomentose, occasionally glabrescent, granulose-glandular; indumentum of flagelliform hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate, occasionally sessile; petiole up to c. 7 cm. long, sometimes very narrowly-winged, sometimes with suborbicular stipule-like structures at the base, pubescent to tomentose; lamina up to 40 x 15 cm. and oblong-elliptic to broadly lanceolate, or up to c. 30 x 20 cm. and ovate, apex subacute to obtuse, base ± asymmetrically cordate or auriculate, sometimes broadly cuneate to attenuate in sessile leaves, with or without basal auricles, margins irregularly serrate to coarsely serrate-dentate with callose-tipped teeth, upper surface sparsely pubescent, lower surface densely grey-green pubescent to sericeous-tomentose, sometimes glabrous on both surfaces.
    Capitulum
    Capitula small and very numerous, in many subglobose clusters paniculately arranged; capitula subsessile.
    Involucre
    Involucres 5–7 x 2.5(5) mm., subcylindric becoming narrowly obconic.
    Phyllaries
    Phyllaries many-seriate, closely imbricate at first, scarious, becoming caducous, inner ones falling in fruit, mostly glabrous, finely ciliate and narrowly hyaline on the margins; outer phyllaries up to c. 1 mm. long, triangular-ovate; the inner up to c. 6 mm. long, narrowly oblong-elliptic, rounded to subacute at apex.
    Florets
    Florets 2–6 per capitulum, corollas whitish or pale-mauve to purple, c. 7 mm. long, funnel-shaped.
    Fruits
    Achenes 3–4 mm. long, subcylindric, tapering to base, narrowly c. 8-ribbed, thinly hispid; outer pappus of short flattened barbellate setae, inner of white barbellate setae c. 6 mm. long.
    [FWTA]

    Compositae, C. D. Adams. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A shrub or small tree 15-20 ft. high
    Florets
    Mauve florets in numerous flower-heads each about 1/2 in. long
    Ecology
    In clearings of upland forest.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Gymnanthemum myrianthum (Hook.f.) H.Rob. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dec 1, 2008 Harvey, Y.B. [315], Cameroon Vernonia myriantha K000518709
    Feb 1, 2008 Simon, G. [1128], Tanzania Vernonia myriantha K000438257
    Jan 1, 2008 Simon, G. [1190], Tanzania Vernonia myriantha K000438537
    Jan 1, 2008 Gobbo, G. [802], Tanzania Vernonia myriantha K000438538
    Aug 1, 2001 Petit, Ethiopia Vernonia myriantha K000272949
    Jul 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [9565], Cameroon Vernonia myriantha K000108742
    Dec 1, 1987 Meller, C.J. [s.n.], Malawi Vernonia myriantha K000273060
    Mann, G. [1936], Cameroon Vernonia myriantha K000272888
    Mann, G. [1913], Cameroon Vernonia myriantha K000272889
    Mann [622] Vernonia myriantha K000272853
    Mann [622] Vernonia myriantha K000272852
    Kayombo, C.J. [841], Tanzania Vernonia myriantha K000612923
    Mwangulango, N.A. [1307], Tanzania Vernonia myriantha K000612939
    Ash [1514], Ethiopia Vernonia stipulacea 35683.000
    Ash [1851], Ethiopia Vernonia stipulacea 35882.000
    Ash [279], Ethiopia Vernonia ampla 6049.383
    Ash [289], Ethiopia Vernonia ampla 9108.016
    Ash [724], Ethiopia Vernonia ampla 50679.000
    Lea, J.H. [3004], South Africa Vernonia podocoma K000273279 Unknown type material

    First published in Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 112(1): 242 (1999)

    Accepted by

    • Roskov Y. & al. (eds.) (2018). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0