1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Rotheca Raf.
      1. Rotheca aurantiaca (Baker) R.Fern.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Malawi to Mozambique.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Habit
    Suffrutex up to 1 m tall from a woody tuberiform rootstock Suffrutex up to 1 m tall from a woody tuberiform rootstock.
    Stem
    Stems 1 to few, erect, cylindric, hollow, up to c. 10 mm in diameter near the base, striate, simple or few-branched, annual and herbaceous, or becoming woody with a smooth greyish-brown corky bark, longitudinally wrinkled when dry, sparsely puberulous or glabrous, with prominent leaf scars surrounded by raised corky margins; branches of annual stems herbaceous long slender, leafy and sterile; lateral branchlets on woody growth short, leafy and flowering, sometimes greatly reduced, arising from above the scars of the previous seasons leaves Stems 1 to few, erect, cylindric, hollow, up to c. 10 mm in diameter near the base, striate, simple or few-branched, annual and herbaceous, or becoming woody with a smooth greyish-brown corky bark, longitudinally wrinkled when dry, sparsely puberulous or glabrous, with prominent leaf scars surrounded by raised corky margins; branches of annual stems herbaceous long slender, leafy and sterile; lateral branchlets on woody growth short, leafy and flowering, sometimes greatly reduced, arising from above the scars of the previous seasons leaves.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, subsessile, spaced along the upper part of the stem and main branches with internodes up to 16 cm long, or numerous and clustered towards the apex of the short lateral branchlets; lamina 5–15.5(40) × 1.8–10 cm, smaller and relatively narrower on the lateral branchlets, oblanceolate to oblong-obovate or elliptic, rounded or subacute at the apex, long attenuate at the base and decurrent into an apparent winged petiole, crenulate to crenate-serrate on the margins in the apical part, or entire, somewhat succulent becoming membranous when dry, concolorous, pale green, lighter beneath, drying darker, sparsely puberulous or glabrous Leaves opposite, subsessile, spaced along the upper part of the stem and main branches with internodes up to 16 cm long, or numerous and clustered towards the apex of the short lateral branchlets; lamina 5–15.5(40) × 1.8–10 cm, smaller and relatively narrower on the lateral branchlets, oblanceolate to oblong-obovate or elliptic, rounded or subacute at the apex, long attenuate at the base and decurrent into an apparent winged petiole, crenulate to crenate-serrate on the margins in the apical part,or entire, somewhat succulent becoming membranous when dry, concolorous, pale green, lighter beneath, drying darker, sparsely puberulous or glabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences raceme-like or spike-like resembling a labiate with dense whorls of flowers, 7–26 cm long, terminal on the stem and lateral branchlets, sometimes with two smaller axillary inflorescences in the axils of the uppermost leaves; inflorescence shoot (rhachis) nodes 3–10, the lowermost internode up to 6 cm long, internodes successively shorter towards the apex, puberulous or glabrous, with 1–3 cymes in each axil of opposite bracts; cymes 1–6-flowered, pedunculate to subsessile; peduncles up to c. 15 mm long and more branched at the rhachis base, progressively shorter to ± absent above with the flowers pedicellate and fasciculately arranged; pedicels 3–8 mm long, slender; lowermost bracts up to 3.8 cm long and 5 mm wide, and leaf-like, progressively smaller and becoming linear toward the rhachis apex Inflorescences raceme-like or spike-like resembling a labiate with dense whorls of flowers, 7–26 cm long, terminal on the stem and lateral branchlets, sometimes with two smaller axillary inflorescences in the axils of the uppermost leaves; inflorescence shoot (rhachis) nodes 3–10, the lowermost internode up to 6 cm long, internodes successively shorter towards the apex, puberulous or glabrous, with 1–3 cymes in each axil of opposite bracts; cymes 1–6-flowered, pedunculate to subsessile; peduncles up to c. 15 mm long and more branched at the rhachis base, progressively shorter to ± absent above with the flowers pedicellate and fasciculately arranged; pedicels 3–8 mm long, slender; lowermost bracts up to 3.8 cm long and 5 mm wide, and leaf-like, progressively smaller and becoming linear toward the rhachis apex.
    Calyx
    Calyx 5–7 mm long at anthesis, campanulate; lobes not overlapping at the margins, 3 × 2–3(3.5) mm, oblong or semicircular, obtuse (acute when margins become inrolled on drying), puberulous or glabrous, ciliolate Calyx 5–7 mm long at anthesis, campanulate; lobes not overlapping at the margins, 3 × 2–3(3.5) mm, oblong or semicircular, obtuse (acute when margins become inrolled on drying), puberulous or glabrous, ciliolate.
    Corolla
    Corolla purple and green, violet or blueish; tube c. 8 mm long and c. 3 mm in diameter, exceeding the calyx; corolla limb when in bud spherical, c. 7 mm in diameter, very densely to entirely covered with small orange-brown glands (dark red-brown on drying) Corolla purple and green, violet or blueish; tube c. 8 mm long and c. 3 mm in diameter, exceeding the calyx; corolla limb when in bud spherical, c. 7 mm in diameter, very densely to entirely covered with small orange-brown glands (dark red-brown on drying).
    Stamens
    Stamens erect and arcuate, exserted 12–13 mm; anthers 3–3.5 mm long, linear Stamens erect and arcuate, exserted 12–13 mm; anthers 3–3.5 mm long, linear.
    Fruits
    Fruit c. 12 mm long, green, turning black when mature; calyx persistent, accrescent. Fruit c. 12 mm long, green, turning black when mature; calyx persistent, accrescent.
    Ecology
    Not known elsewhere. In Brachystegia and mixed deciduous woodlands; c. 150–200 m. Not known elsewhere. Brachystegia and Colophospermum mopane woodlands, on clayey sandy soils; c. 200–900 m.
    Note
    Rotheca aurantiaca is very similar to the Tanzanian species Clerodendrum kissakense Gürke of Verdcourt in F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae 141–142, fig. 18/17–18 (1992), based on Goetze 42 (B†, holotype).  R. kissakensis (Gürke) Verdc. may be distinguished from R. aurantiaca by its longer calyx with imbricately overlapping broader than long calyx lobes, and by the corolla tube being less exserted.  Gürke, in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28 : 304 (1900), refers to the type, the only specimen seen by him, as having opposite leaves, while Verdcourt (op. cit.: 141) describes the R. kissakensis leaves as 3-whorled.  All R. aurantiaca specimens seen so far from Mozambique have opposite leaves.  It is possible that when more material is available the distinction between these two taxa will become less apparent, suggesting that they should be recognized as being synonymous.  In this case R. kissakensis , described one month earlier, would be the correct name. The specimen Stuhlmann 713, referred to R. kissakensis by B. Thomas, was probably collected on Mozambique Island or in the Quelimane area in Mozambique (cf. Verdcourt, loc. cit., in adnot.).  However, this specimen has not been seen by any botanist since Thomas in 1936, and it is not possible to know if it is true R. kissakensis or R. aurantiaca .  It should be pointed out that R. kissakensis is glabrous as are the three specimens seen so far of R. aurantiaca forma  faulknerae , and that Stuhlmann 713 was probably collected in the same area as they were. "Baker, in F.T.A. 5 : 313 (1900), mistakenly described the corolla colour as ‘light orange’, probably because specimen data accompanying the holotype included the note ""Color. light orange"" (possibly by the collector’s hand).  These collector’s notes almost certainly referred to the apparent colour of the corolla buds, the outsides of which were densely covered in orange-brown stalked glands.  The corollas in Meller’s specimen were all in bud when he collected it, with only the outer surface of the corolla limb and lobes visible.  The corollas in subgen. Cyclonema are never orange or yellow.  Another interpretation is that the collector might have been referring to the colour suggested by the indumentum of the plant itself."

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Malawi, Mozambique

    Rotheca aurantiaca (Baker) R.Fern. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1935 Meller [s.n.] Clerodendrum aurantiacum K000192950 Unknown type material

    First published in Kew Bull. 55: 148 (2000)

    Accepted by

    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Mem. Soc. Brot. 30 : 31 (1998).
    • Phytologia 57 : 490 (1985).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 68 : 89 (1936).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0