1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Rotheca Raf.
      1. Rotheca cyanea (R.Fern.) R.Fern.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Angola to Zambia.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    General
    An erect few- to much branched shrub 1.2–4 m tall, or sometimes a tree to c. 6.5 m tall, often also flowering on herbaceous sucker or coppice shoots
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, distinctly petiolate, ± closely spaced on the upper part of the flowering branches; lamina 6–17 × 2–7.7 cm, narrowly to broadly elliptic or lanceolate, rarely ovate-elliptic, acute to acuminate or sometimes obtuse at the apex, cuneate or rarely rounded at the base, usually entire to obscurely ± sparsely crenulate or nearly so, ± concolorous, ± coriaceous when dry, usually densely minutely punctate beneath, glabrous; petiole 0.8–3 cm long, somewhat thick, reddish-purple, glabrous or puberulous and soon glabrescent in young leaves Leaves opposite, distinctly petiolate, ± closely spaced on the upper part of the flowering branches; lamina 6–17 × 2–7.7 cm, narrowly to broadly elliptic or lanceolate, rarely ovate-elliptic, acute to acuminate or sometimes obtuse at the apex, cuneate or rarely rounded at the base, usually entire to obscurely ± sparsely crenulate or nearly so, ± concolorous, ± coriaceous when dry, usually densely minutely punctate beneath, glabrous; petiole 0.8–3 cm long, somewhat thick, reddish-purple, glabrous or puberulous and soon glabrescent in young leaves.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a loose terminal glabrous panicle, 8–18 cm long, consisting of opposite cymes subtended by foliaceous bracts, the lowermost pair of cymes in the axils of the two uppermost leaves; sometimes with additional smaller panicles terminal on lateral branchlets; the lower floral internode 2–7.5 cm long, those above successively shorter; peduncles of the lowermost pair of cymes 5–8 cm long, spreading or subreflexed, the upper successively shorter; bracts up to 4 × 2.8 cm, subpetiolate; pedicels 2–7 mm long, glabrous, reddish-purple Inflorescence a loose terminal glabrous panicle, 8–18 cm long, consisting of opposite cymes subtended by foliaceous bracts, the lowermost pair of cymes in the axils of the two uppermost leaves; sometimes with additional smaller panicles terminal on lateral branchlets; the lower floral internode 2–7.5 cm long, those above successively shorter; peduncles of the lowermost pair of cymes 5–8 cm long, spreading or subreflexed, the upper successively shorter; bracts up to 4 × 2.8 cm, subpetiolate; pedicels 2–7 mm long, glabrous, reddish-purple.
    Calyx
    Calyx 6–8 mm long and 6.5–10 mm in diameter about the tips of the lobes, obliquely obconical, pale green below, magenta or purple towards the apex, glabrous or rarely sparsely hairy; lobes 1.5–3 mm long, 3–4 mm wide at the base, equalling or shorter than the tube, ± semicircular, erect or partially to completely reflexed (the 3 stages often present on the same specimen), ciliolate Calyx 6–8 mm long and 6.5–10 mm in diameter about the tips of the lobes, obliquely obconical, pale green below, magenta or purple towards the apex, glabrous or rarely sparsely hairy; lobes 1.5–3 mm long, 3–4 mm wide at the base, equalling or shorter than the tube, ± semicircular, erect or partially to completely reflexed (the 3 stages often present on the same specimen), ciliolate.
    Corolla
    Corolla pale or bright to deep blue, or mauve to lilac, or the 4 lateral lobes pale blue and the median lobe dark blue, or the 4 lateral lobes pale violet and the median lobe deeper violet; tube 7–11.5 mm long and 4–4.5 mm in diameter; lateral lobes 9.5–13(17) × 6–8.5 mm, oblong-obovate, the median one 14–20 × 8.5–10 mm, deeply concave, all ciliolate at the margins; corolla limb when in bud 10–12 mm in diameter, spherical, glabrous Corolla pale or bright to deep blue, or mauve to lilac, or the 4 lateral lobes pale blue and the median lobe dark blue, or the 4 lateral lobes pale violet and the median lobe deeper violet; tube 7–11.5 mm long and 4–4.5 mm in diameter; lateral lobes 9.5–13(17) × 6–8.5 mm, oblong-obovate, the median one 14–20 × 8.5–10 mm, deeply concave, all ciliolate at the margins; corolla limb when in bud 10–12 mm in diameter, spherical, glabrous.
    Anthers
    Anthers 1.75–2.5 mm long Anthers 1.75–2.5 mm long.
    Style
    Style c. 5 cm long, whitish; stigma reddish-purple
    Fruits
    Fruit c. 12 mm in diameter, subglobose, glossy, at first reddish or reddish-brown, black or blue-black when ripe; fruiting calyx saucer-shaped, c. 13 mm in diameter, papery, pale green in the centre, red-purple towards the margin. Fruit c. 12 mm in diameter, subglobose, glossy, at first reddish or reddish-brown, black or blue-black when ripe; fruiting calyx saucer-shaped, c. 13 mm in diameter, papery, pale green in the centre, red-purple towards the margin.
    Ecology
    Swamp-forest (mushitu) and dambo margins, and in riverine forest; 1160–1760 m.
    Note
    Some specimens, mainly of Dem. Rep. Congo, cited by authors as Clerodendrum violaceum Gürke, C. caesium Gürke or C. cabrae De Wild., belong to R. cyanea.
    Distribution
    Also in Angola. Zimbabwe Zambia District code: MAL C, MAL W, ZIM E.
    Habit
    An erect few- to much branched shrub 1.2–4 m tall, or sometimes a tree to c. 6.5 m tall, often also flowering on herbaceous sucker or coppice shoots.
    Branches
    Branches 4-angled, somewhat thick, with a well developed central pith, glabrous or yellow-brownish puberulous towards the apices soon glabrescent, often with prominent scattered lenticels; bark on young branches, dark brown, soft, becoming longitudinally wrinkled when dry. Branches 4-angled, somewhat thick, with a well developed central pith, glabrous or yellow-brownish puberulous towards the apices soon glabrescent, often with prominent scattered lenticels; bark on young branches, dark brown, soft, becoming longitudinally wrinkled when dry
    Pistil
    Style c. 5 cm long, whitish; stigma reddish-purple.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Zambia, Zaïre

    Rotheca cyanea (R.Fern.) R.Fern. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1994 Richards, Mrs. H.M. [6132], Zambia Clerodendrum cyaneum K000192956 holotype

    First published in Kew Bull. 55: 148 (2000)

    Accepted by

    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • sensu Richards & Morony, Check List Fl. Mbala: 237 (1969).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0