1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Rotheca Raf.
      1. Rotheca quadrangulata (B.Thomas) R.Fern.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania to Zambia.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Type
    Type from Tanzania.
    Habit
    Shrub 1–4 m tall, erect or sometimes scrambling up to 5(10?) m, weak-stemmed Shrub 1–4 m tall, erect or sometimes scrambling up to 5(10?) m, weak-stemmed.
    Branches
    Branches 4-angled, glabrous or with a caducous floccose whitish or fulvous indumentum towards the apices, flowering branches slender, sometimes pendulous; bark brown with prominent lenticels Branches 4-angled, glabrous or with a caducous floccose whitish or fulvous indumentum towards the apices, flowering branches slender, sometimes pendulous; bark brown with prominent lenticels.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite decussate, ± closely spaced on the upper part of the flowering branches, sessile or very shortly petiolate, spreading; lamina mostly sessile, (3)8–22.5 × (2)2.4–10 cm, (including the narrowly tapering base), broadly elliptic to orbicular in the upper 2/3, oblanceolate or oblong-oblanceolate, sometimes subspathulate, ± long attenuate to broadly cuneate in the c. lower 1/3 or ± abruptly contracted and tapering into a ± broadly winged pseudopetiole, rounded to subcordate or semi-amplexicaul at the base, rounded to obtuse or ± acuminate at the apex, entire or serrate-dentate in the upper broader part of the leaf, teeth 12(14) on each side, up to 7 × 2.2 mm, sometimes crenulate; the blade thinly membranous, drying very dark to nearly black on the upper surface, less so beneath, usually glabrous or very sparsely pubescent above and more hairy beneath with short whitish hairs, the young terminal leaves sometimes with a floccose yellowish-brown very caducous indumentum at the base of the midrib beneath, and with scattered hairs along the midrib and the margins; leaves subtending the cymes, sessile, up to 10 × 5.5 cm, ovate-oblong, or obovate to broadly elliptic, rounded or cordate at the base, rounded or shortly acuminate at the apex, entire or serrate-dentate Leaves opposite decussate, ± closely spaced on the upper part of the flowering branches, sessile or very shortly petiolate, spreading; lamina mostly sessile, (3)8–22.5 × (2)2.4–10 cm, (including the narrowly tapering base), broadly elliptic to orbicular in the upper 2/3, oblanceolate or oblong-oblanceolate, sometimes subspathulate, ± long attenuate to broadly cuneate in the c. lower 1/3 or ± abruptly contracted and tapering into a ± broadly winged pseudopetiole, rounded to subcordate or semi-amplexicaul at the base, rounded to obtuse or ± acuminate at the apex, entire or serrate-dentate in the upper broader part of the leaf, teeth 12(14) on each side, up to 7 × 2.2 mm, sometimes crenulate; the blade thinly membranous, drying very dark to nearly black on the upper surface, less so beneath, usually glabrous or very sparsely pubescent above and more hairy beneath with short whitish hairs, the young terminal leaves sometimes with a floccose yellowish-brown very caducous indumentum at the base of the midrib beneath, and with scattered hairs along the midrib and the margins; leaves subtending the cymes, sessile, up to 10 × 5.5 cm, ovate-oblong, or obovate to broadly elliptic, rounded or cordate at the base, rounded or shortly acuminate at the apex, entire or serrate-dentate.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes up to 8-paired, forming a terminal leafy laxly-spreading slender-peduncled open panicle, up to c. 30 × 20 cm; lowermost floral internode up to 7.5 cm long; peduncles slender to filiform, the lowermost 6.5–12 cm long, spreading or sometimes arched and reflexed, purpurascent, glabrous or sparsely shortly hairy; bracts linear; pedicels c. 6 mm long, glabrous or sparsely hairy Cymes up to 8-paired, forming a terminal leafy laxly-spreading slender-peduncled open panicle, up to c. 30 × 20 cm; lowermost floral internode up to 7.5 cm long; peduncles slender to filiform, the lowermost 6.5–12 cm long, spreading or sometimes arched and reflexed, purpurascent, glabrous or sparsely shortly hairy; bracts linear; pedicels c. 6 mm long, glabrous or sparsely hairy.
    Fruits
    Fruit 7–9 mm broad and 5–6 mm long, ovoid, glossy, red, reddish-brown or bronze-brown. Fruit 7–9 mm broad and 5–6 mm long, ovoid, glossy, red, reddish-brown or bronze-brown.
    Ecology
    Afromontane evergreen forest, Juniper rainforest, gulley forests and forest margins, swamp forest (mushitu) and riverine forest, and in high rainfall woodland, often on termitaria; 570–2135 m.
    Note
      Robson 1370 (BM; BR; K; LISC; SRGH) and Adlard 238 (FHO) from Malawi have the calyces more pilose and the corolla limb (in bud) more densely puberulous than is usual for R. quadrangulata , while in Mutimushi 236 (K), from Kitwe (Zambia), the teeth on the leaf margins are more acute and spreading, and the calyx lobes relatively longer than wide.  However, these specimens are closer to R. quadrangulata in all other characters and are therefore retained in this species. Wright 284 (K; SRGH) approaches R. quadrangulata in its broad leaves, nearly circular in the lowermost, and in its ample inflorescence, but it differs in that the leaves are not broadly winged pseudopetiolate at the base, and in the larger calyx lobes and the indumentum of the branches, leaves and calyx. R. quadrangulata , treated by Verdcourt (loc. cit.: 127 (1993)) as C. sansibarense Gürke subsp. sansibarense , may be distinguished from that species by the shape of its leaves.  In Rotheca sansibarensis the leaves are subtruncate at the base with only a short narrowly cuneate portion about the midrib base and are not long attenuate at the base with the lamina tapering into a ± broadly winged pseudopetiole.  Moreover, the corolla limb when in bud is spherical in R. quadrangulata , whereas it is ovoid or oblong-ovoid and sometimes mamillate at the top in R. sansibarensis , the corolla lobes are indistinctly nerved in R. quadrangulata but those of typical R. sansibarensis have the nerves rather raised beneath, etc.   R. quadrangulata is closer to R. bukobensis , which has very similar leaves.  However, in the former the calyx is usually glabrous, smaller and not so deeply divided, and its lobes are narrower, usually narrowing only slightly towards the apex (often subtriangular), whereas in R. bukobensis the calyx is pubescent, particularly at the base, with lobes broader semicircular and rounded at the top, often reflexed.
    Distribution
    Also in Tanzania and Dem. Rep. Congo. Malawi District code: MOZ N, MOZ W, MOZ C, MOZ E, MOZ S, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, Zambia
    Calyx
    Calyx 3–4.5(5) mm long and 4–5 mm in diameter about the tips of the lobes, reddish-purple, usually glabrous, sometimes minutely sparsely pubescent, or rarely densely so; lobes shorter than the tube, ovate-triangular to oblong or ± semicircular, obtuse or rounded at the apex, remaining erect even in the fruiting calyx. Calyx 3–4.5(5) mm long and 4–5 mm in diameter about the tips of the lobes, reddish-purple, usually glabrous, sometimes minutely sparsely pubescent, or rarely densely so; lobes shorter than the tube, ovate-triangular to oblong or ± semicircular, obtuse or rounded at the apex, remaining erect even in the fruiting calyx
    Corolla
    Corolla usually with the four lateral lobes green, bluish-green, creamy-green or greenish-violet, and the median lobe deep violet, bright blue to purple or deep purple-blue; tube 7–8 mm long, glabrous; lateral lobes 7.5–9.5 × 4 mm, oblong, obtuse, the median lobe up to 12.5 × 5.5 mm; corolla limb spherical when in bud, glabrous or appressed-hairy, the hairs very short and thin, usually sparse. Corolla usually with the four lateral lobes green, bluish-green, creamy-green or greenish-violet, and the median lobe deep violet, bright blue to purple or deep purple-blue; tube 7–8 mm long, glabrous; lateral lobes 7.5–9.5 × 4 mm, oblong, obtuse, the median lobe up to 12.5 × 5.5 mm; corolla limb spherical when in bud, glabrous or appressed-hairy, the hairs very short and thin, usually sparse
    Anthers
    Anthers (1)1.25–1.5(1.75) mm long. Anthers (1)1.25–1.5(1.75) mm long

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Burundi, Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre

    Rotheca quadrangulata (B.Thomas) R.Fern. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    illegible [2381], Congo Clerodendrum quadrangulatum K000192861 isosyntype

    First published in Kew Bull. 55: 152 (2000)

    Accepted by

    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Mem. Soc. Brot. 30 : 96 (1998).
    • Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 77 : 30 (1973).
    • Richards & Morony, Check List Fl. Mbala: 237 (1969).
    • White, For. Fl. N. Rhod.: 366 (1962).
    • Brenan, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 633 (1949) nom. inval .
    • Brenan, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 633 (1949).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0