1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Rotheca Raf.
      1. Rotheca wildii (Moldenke) R.Fern.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Tropical & S. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    General
    A soft, woody, much- to sparsely-branched shrub, (0.64)1–3(4) m tall, from a woody rootstock, sometimes scandent or a small tree, usually leafless when in flower; branches thick and ± fleshy, stiff and somewhat brittle, obtusely 4-angled toward the apex, pithy in the centre, with internodes shorter towards the end of the branches; bark smooth, purplish-grey when young, glabrescent, becoming pale to dark greyish-brown and corky, longitudinally wrinkled when dry, with whitish prominent lenticels and concave cordate-elliptic to semi-circular leaf scars surrounded by raised corky margins
    Ecology
    A semi-succulent shrub flowering leafless before the rains, in sandy soils around granite outcrops and on dry rocky hillsides, in dry wooded-grassland, Acacia and baobab woodlands, and in thicket vegetation with Acacia , Grewia and Commiphora spp. ; 150–1500 m. Known only from the Flora Zambesiaca area. A semi-succulent shrub flowering leafless before the rains, on dry rocky hillsides and sandveld, in miombo, Combretum and Colophospermum mopane woodlands, in thickets in grassland and on termite-mounds; 640–1536 m.
    Note
    Some Mozambique specimens determined by  Moldenke as Clerodendrum makanjanum [ Barbosa 2473, 2505; Mendonça 902, 1242 (err. 1212) & 2019, and Torre & Paiva 9356, 9448 & 9574] and Phillips 2919 from Malawi, belong to R. wildii forma glabra (R. Fern.) R. Fern. Forma wildii and forma glabra occur with equal frequency in Zimbabwe, however, forma wildii appears to be more common in Zambia and forma glabra more common in Malawi and Mozambique.
    Distribution
    District code: ZIM C, ZIM S, ZIM N, ZIM C, ZIM S, MAL S, MOZ T. Mozambique Mozambique Malawi Mozambique Malawi Zimbabwe Zambia Botswana Mozambique Malawi Zimbabwe Zambia Also in South Africa (Northern Province). District code: BOT N, BOT S, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MAL N, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ Z, MOZ MS, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ Z.
    Habit
    A soft, woody, much- to sparsely-branched shrub, (0.64)1–3(4) m tall, from a woody rootstock, sometimes scandent or a small tree, usually leafless when in flower; branches thick and ± fleshy, stiff and somewhat brittle, obtusely 4-angled toward the apex, pithy in the centre, with internodes shorter towards the end of the branches; bark smooth, purplish-grey when young, glabrescent, becoming pale to dark greyish-brown and corky, longitudinally wrinkled when dry, with whitish prominent lenticels and concave cordate-elliptic to semi-circular leaf scars surrounded by raised corky margins.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, petiolate, slightly fleshy; lamina 3–13.5 × 1.5–7.2 cm, ovate or elliptic to broadly elliptic, acuminate at the apex, attenuate at the base and ± decurrent into the petiole, entire to subentire often ± coarsely serrate in the apical half, membranous to chartaceous, concolorous, pale green, lighter beneath, glabrous or sometimes sparsely pubescent on the upper surface, more densely so beneath with hairs particularly on the nerves; petiole up to c. 5 cm long, ± winged by the ± decurrent lamina. Leaves opposite, petiolate, slightly fleshy; lamina 3–13.5 × 1.5–7.2 cm, ovate or elliptic to broadly elliptic, acuminate at the apex, attenuate at the base and ± decurrent into the petiole, entire to subentire often ± coarsely serrate in the apical half, membranous to chartaceous, concolorous, pale green, lighter beneath, glabrous or sometimes sparsely pubescent on the upper surface, more densely so beneath with hairs particularly on the nerves; petiole up to c. 5 cm long, ± winged by the ± decurrent lamina
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences (2.2.)4–15.5 cm long, raceme-like or narrowly paniculiform resembling a ‘labiate’ with dense whorls of flowers, axillary in the apical leaf cluster (but appearing terminal) or on short lateral branches which are sometimes so reduced that the inflorescences appear cauline; inflorescence shoot (rhachis) nodes 3–9, the lowermost internode up to 30(35) mm long, successively shorter towards the apex, pubescent or glabrous, each node with 1–2(3) cymes in each axil of opposite bracts, the uppermost nodes sometimes sterile; cymes subsessile or with peduncles up to c. 10 mm long, 1–7-flowered; peduncles longest and more branched at the rhachis base; pedicels 3–8 mm long, slender; bracts lanceolate-ovate, up to 15 mm long and leaf-like at the lower nodes. Inflorescences (2.2.)4–15.5 cm long, raceme-like or narrowly paniculiform resembling a ‘labiate’ with dense whorls of flowers, axillary in the apical leaf cluster (but appearing terminal) or on short lateral branches which are sometimes so reduced that the inflorescences appear cauline; inflorescence shoot (rhachis) nodes 3–9, the lowermost internode up to 30(35) mm long, successively shorter towards the apex, pubescent or glabrous, each node with 1–2(3) cymes in each axil of opposite bracts, the uppermost nodes sometimes sterile; cymes subsessile or with peduncles up to c. 10 mm long, 1–7-flowered; peduncles longest and more branched at the rhachis base; pedicels 3–8 mm long, slender; bracts lanceolate-ovate, up to 15 mm long and leaf-like at the lower nodes
    Calyx
    Calyx (4)4.5–6(7–8) mm long, campanulate, green or purple-tinged at the base, becoming deep violet or purplish-red towards the upper margin; lobes (2)2.5–3.5 mm long, usually oblong and ± rounded at the apex, or sometimes semicircular (subtriangular and subacute on drying), erect, ciliate. Calyx (4)4.5–6(7–8) mm long, campanulate, green or purple-tinged at the base, becoming deep violet or purplish-red towards the upper margin; lobes (2)2.5–3.5 mm long, usually oblong and ± rounded at the apex, or sometimes semicircular (subtriangular and subacute on drying), erect, ciliate
    Corolla
    Corolla tube (5)6–10(11) mm long and 3–4.25 mm in diameter, curved; lower lobe 13–15 × 7 mm, concave spathulate, violet, purple, mauve, lilac or blue, the other lobes 8–12 × 5.5–7 mm, oblong, obtuse, cream-coloured, greenish-white or green inside, all blackish or dark grey-green and ± covered with sessile or subsessile glands on the outside; corolla limb when in bud 6.5–9 mm in diameter, ± densely covered with sessile to subsessile spherical reddish-purple glands. Corolla tube (5)6–10(11) mm long and 3–4.25 mm in diameter, curved; lower lobe 13–15 × 7 mm, concave spathulate, violet, purple, mauve, lilac or blue, the other lobes 8–12 × 5.5–7 mm, oblong, obtuse, cream-coloured, greenish-white or green inside, all blackish or dark grey-green and ± covered with sessile or subsessile glands on the outside; corolla limb when in bud 6.5–9 mm in diameter, ± densely covered with sessile to subsessile spherical reddish-purple glands
    Stamens
    Stamens erect and arcuate, exserted 12–13 mm; anthers (3)3.5–4 mm long, mauve, turning very dark on drying. Stamens erect and arcuate, exserted 12–13 mm; anthers (3)3.5–4 mm long, mauve, turning very dark on drying
    Fruits
    Fruit 7–8 × 8–12 mm, green, turning black when mature; calyx persistent. Fruit 7–8 × 8–12 mm, green, turning black when mature; calyx persistent.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Rotheca wildii (Moldenke) R.Fern. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Brenan, J.P.M. [7798], Zambia Clerodendrum wildii 18111.000

    First published in Kew Bull. 55: 154 (2000)

    Accepted by

    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • M. Coates Palgrave, ed. 3 of K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa: 992 (2002).
    • Mem. Soc. Brot. 30 : 107 (1998).
    • Kirkia 10 : 272 (1975).
    • White, For. Fl. N. Rhod.: 366 (1962).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0