1. Family: Berberidaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Epimedium Tourn. ex L.
      1. Epimedium perralderianum Coss.

        Epimedium perralderianum was named by the French botanist Ernest Saint-Charles Cosson (1819-1889) in memory of his friend Henri de la Perraudière, who died as a result of a fever on an expedition to Mount Babor (Algeria) in 1861, during which this species was discovered.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    Barrenwort is an evergreen, herbaceous perennial with stiff, heart-shaped leaflets and spikes of small, yellow flowers in spring.

    Epimedium perralderianum was named by the French botanist Ernest Saint-Charles Cosson (1819-1889) in memory of his friend Henri de la Perraudière, who died as a result of a fever on an expedition to Mount Babor (Algeria) in 1861, during which this species was discovered.

    The small yellow flowers are produced on leafless spikes in the spring.

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Native to north-eastern Algeria, where it grows in the oak and cedar forests of Mount Babor, at 1,200–1,500 m above sea level.

    Moist forests of North Africa

    Epimedium perralderianum is one of the interesting species found in the relicts of moist forest in the North African mountains. The closely related E. pinnatum s ubspecies colchicum grows in the moist forests of the Black Sea coast in north-eastern Turkey.

    Mount Babor (Djebel Babor) in Algeria is one of the wettest places in North Africa (with 2,000–2,500 mm average annual rainfall). It contains the last remnants of forests which covered much of North Africa during the glacial maximum 20,000 years ago. Oaks, holly, yew, aspen and Acer opalus subsp. obtusatum are all found here, along with Atlas cedar ( Cedrus atlantica ), which occurs from around 1,200 m above sea level in mixed woodland, and dominates at higher altitudes (above 1,800 m).

    Part of the area is protected as the Djebel Babor Strict Nature Reserve.

    Description

    The long-creeping rhizome (underground stem) is tough and wiry. The leaves are up to 20 cm long and are divided into three leaflets, each up to 6.5 cm long (or up to 10 cm in cultivation). The glandular flowering stems are up to 30 cm high and bear 9–25 flowers. The flowers are 1.5–2.3 cm across, and each has four small, greenish outer sepals and four large, yellow inner sepals 5–9 mm across. Each flower has four small (2.5 mm long) petals, with small, brown nectaries with an upward-curving spur 1–2 mm long. The stamens (male parts) are 5 mm long and bear yellow anthers (pollen-bearing structures).

    Threats and conservation

    Epimedium perralderianum was listed as Vulnerable according to IUCN Red List criteria in 1998. It has a very restricted distribution in the wild, and is likely to be adversely affected by any deforestation.

    Uses

    Epimedium perralderianum is cultivated as an ornamental. It makes a good groundcover plant for moist, partially shaded places (such as in a woodland garden). Its leaves turn red in late summer and autumn.

    Some Chinese species of Epimedium are used medicinally. For example, E. sagittatum is one of four source species of the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) called ‘Yin Yang Huo’ (pharmaceutical name: Herba Epimedii). The aerial parts of the plant are used to treat impotence, rheumatoid arthritis, numbness and muscle contractions, and hypertension during menopause, among other conditions.

    Cultivation

    Epimedium perralderianum is easily grown in partial shade, preferably in places which do not dry out in summer. It can be propagated easily by division.

    This species at Kew

    Epimedium perralderianum is grown in the Woodland Garden (the area around the Temple of Aeolus) at Kew.

    Dried and alcohol-preserved specimens of Epimedium perralderianum are held in Kew’s Herbarium, where they are available to researchers from around the world, by appointment. The details of one of these specimens can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue.

    Ecology
    Oak woodland and Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica) forest.
    Conservation
    Vulnerable according IUCN Red List criteria (1998).
    Hazards

    None known.

    Images

    Distribution

    Common Names

    English
    Barrenwort

    Epimedium perralderianum Coss. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    73655.000

    First published in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 9: 167 (1862)

    Accepted in:

    • [1] (2011) Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève
    • [4] Govaerts, R. (2001) World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919

    Literature

    • [2] Guowei, S. (2005). Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, Volume 1, English Edition. Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission, People's Medical Publishing House, Beijing, China.
    • [3] Stearn, W.T. (2002). The Genus Epimedium. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [5] Walter, K.S. & Gillett, H.J. (eds) (1998). 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
    • [6] Davis, P.H. & Hedge, I. (1971). Floristic links between N.W. Africa and S.W. Asia. Ann. Nat. hist. Mus. Wien 75: 43-57.
    • [7] Hooker, J.D. (1880). Epimedium perralderianum Coss. Curtis’s Bot. Mag. 106: t. 6509.

    Sources

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (2017). Published on the internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp
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