1. Family: Bignoniaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Kigelia DC.
      1. Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth.

        Kigelia africana is an African tree, easily recognised due to the large sausage-shaped fruits hanging from its branches. The generic name Kigelia comes from the Mozambican name for sausage tree, 'kigeli-keia'. Sausage trees are sacred to many communities and are often protected when other forest trees are cut down. In Kenya, the Luo and Luhya people bury a fruit to symbolise the body of a lost person believed to be dead.

    [FWTA]

    Bignoniaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A medium-sized tree 20-50 ft. high
    Flowers
    Flowers variable in colour, purplish-red, purple-yellow, orange, greenish-yellow, and sometimes spotted with darker reddish colours
    Fruits
    Fruits like long sausages
    Vernacular
    The Sausage Tree
    [FTEA]

    Bignoniaceae, Sally Bidgood, Bernard Verdcourt, Kaj Vollesen. Cobaeaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006

    Type
    Type: Senegal, Adanson 199A (P-JUSS 4991, holo.; microfiche!) (Note: * Several authors have suggested Thouin was the collector because Lamarck mentions him but Thouin was a gardener at the Jardin des Plantes in Paris and he never went to Africa; he was a friend of Adanson and possibly received material from him.)
    Habit
    Shrub 2–3 m tall or tree often with wide spreading crown, 2.5–18(–24) m tall and possibly larger (but reports of up to 35 m incorrect).
    Bark
    Bark usually grey, occasionally brown, smooth to rough or ridged, scaly or flaking.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or ternate.
    Leaflets
    Leaflets thin to very coriaceous, (2–)3–8-jugate, oblong, elliptic, ovate or obovate, (6–)10–20(–30) × (4–)6–13(–16) cm, acute to cuneate or rounded, truncate, or emarginate at the base, entire to serrate (particularly sucker shoots), rounded, obtuse or acute to distinctly acuminate at the apex, glabrous to pubescent or tomentellous, smooth or often slightly to very scabrid with raised pale dots, peltate and punctate glands sometimes present; venation plane or sometimes raised or impressed, with 7–12 pairs of veins.
    Flowers
    Flowers said to smell unpleasant, in lax terminal hanging panicles 30–80(–150) cm long including peduncle up to 40 cm long.
    Bracts
    Bracts lanceolate, 1 cm long.
    Inflorescences
    Individual cymes 1–3flowered.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels hooked, 1–4(–5) cm long.
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate, 2–5 cm long, ± 2–lipped, irregularly lobed, the lobes ± 1 cm long, tomentose to glabrous, with scattered glands.
    Corolla
    Corolla at first with tube yellow outside, turning orange or red and with dark red to blackish inside, 3–9 cm long, cylindrical at base for a very variable length; lobes yellow-green outside suffused with crimson, dark crimson inside, ± ovate, 3–4.5 cm long and wide.
    Fruits
    Fruits cylindrical, 30–90 cm long, 7.5–10 cm wide, tough and woody; stalks up to 50 cm long.
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid, ± 11 mm long, 7 mm wide and 4 mm thick.
    Figures
    Fig. 11, p. 45.
    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    The sausage tree is sacred to many African communities and has a wide variety of uses in traditional and Western medicine, including commercially available skin lotions.

    Kigelia africana is an African tree, easily recognised due to the large sausage-shaped fruits hanging from its branches. The generic name Kigelia comes from the Mozambican name for sausage tree, 'kigeli-keia'. Sausage trees are sacred to many communities and are often protected when other forest trees are cut down. In Kenya, the Luo and Luhya people bury a fruit to symbolise the body of a lost person believed to be dead.

    The flowers only open at night and are pollinated by bats and hawk-moths. They are dark red, which is unusual for a bat-pollinated species (bats are normally attracted to white flowers), but the strong unpleasant smell of the flowers is thought to attract bats.

    Every part of the tree is used in herbal medicines (eg for digestive and respiratory disorders, and to treat infections and wounds). The sausage tree is used in a variety of commercial applications to treat skin complaints. Research into its anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-tumour activity is ongoing.

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    The sausage tree is found across sub-Saharan tropical Africa and as far south as South Africa. It is cultivated in other tropical countries and is used as an ornamental tree in Australia, the USA and parts of South-East Asia.

    Description

    Kigelia africana is a tree, 2.5-18 m tall, or sometimes a shrub 2-3 m tall. The bark is smooth and grey-brown in colour. The leaves are in groups of three at the ends of the branches and are 10-20 cm long with 3-8 leaflets. The inflorescence is a panicle, 30-80 cm long. The tubular flowers are dark red with yellow veins, and have an unpleasant smell. The fruits are sausage-shaped, 30-90 cm long and 7.5-10 cm in diameter.

    The sausage tree is very variable in habit and leaf morphology. Trees growing in forests have larger leaflets than trees growing in open areas. It was once thought that there were ten different species of Kigelia , but botanists now recognise only one. In East Africa two subspecies are recognised, K. africana subsp. africana growing in grasslands and woodlands and K. africana subsp. moosa in tropical forests.

    Multiple names

    A comprehensive collation of data on sausage tree has been made by Kew's Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL).

    Apart from detailed information on uses throughout Africa, the SEPASAL database (available online) also records over 400 vernacular names by which the sausage tree is known - an indication of the tree's importance and value to communities throughout its geographic range.

    Threats and conservation

    The sausage tree is widespread across tropical Africa. It is a sacred tree for many communities and is usually protected on farm lands when other tree species are cut down. In Malawi, Kigelia africana is now protected after many trees were cut down to make canoes.

    Uses

    Kigelia africana is an important tree for many people and has a wide range of uses.

    Both ripe and unripe fruits are poisonous to humans but the fruits can be dried and fermented, and used along with the bark to enhance the flavour of traditional beers. The seeds are sometimes roasted and eaten in times of food shortage.  The wood makes good quality timber for fences, planking, boxes and canoes.

    Kigelia africana is a suitable tree for planting to stabilise riverbanks, while its broad canopy makes it a good shade tree in the open savanna. It is, however, not advisable to park a vehicle or to sit beneath a fruiting tree - the 'sausages' (fruits) can weigh up to 12 kg and can cause considerable damage when they fall!

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    The Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

    Two collections of sausage tree seeds are held in Kew's Millennium Seed Bank based at Wakehurst in West Sussex.

    For further information on Kigelia africana seeds see Kew's Seed Information Database

    Sausage tree at Kew

    The sausage tree can be seen growing in the Palm House and the Princess of Wales Conservatory.

    Dried and spirit-preserved specimens of Kigelia africana are held in the Herbarium, one of the behind-the-scenes areas of Kew. Details, including images, of some of these specimens can be seen on-line in the Herbarium Catalogue.

    Bark, fruits, seeds and wood from K. africana are also held in the Economic Botany Collection. These specimens are made available to researchers from around the world by appointment.

    Ecology
    Riverine forest, wooded grassland, savanna and forest margins.
    Conservation
    Least Concern (LC) in the Red List of South African Plants.
    Hazards

    Both ripe and unripe fruits are toxic to humans and can also do considerable damage if they fall on vehicles or unsuspecting humans.

    [FZ]

    Bignoniaceae, M. A. Diniz. Flora Zambesiaca 8:3. 1988

    Habit
    Medium or large sized tree up to 25 m. tall.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3, imparipinnate, crowded towards the tops of the branches; leaflets (1) 2–5-jugate, sessile or subsessile, except the terminal ones with petiolule (0.7)1–4(6.5) cm., long; leaflet lamina 3.5–17.5 (22.5) x 2.5–11 cm., ovate elliptic, obovate to rounded, apex obtuse, broadly tapering to rounded or retuse ana not so often apiculate, base rounded to cuneate, slightly to profoundly asymmetric except in the terminal leaflet which is asymmetric, glabrous to more or less hairy in both surfaces sometimes more roughly hairy in the superior one, papyraceous to coriaceous, margins entire, serrate or toothed and sometimes conspicously wavy; lateral nerves (4)6–13 pairs impressed above, prominent below, venation laxly reticulate; petiole (2)3.5–14(16) cm. long; rhachis 3–25 (29) cm. long, sulcate above, terete below.
    Flowers
    Flowers in pendulous very lax, terminal panicles, 30–100 (150) cm. long, longly pedunculate; pedicels 1–11 (13.5) cm. long, upcurved at the tip; bracts small lanceolate caducous.
    Calyx
    Calyx shortly tubular to campanulate, (1.7)2–4.3 cm. long, irregularly 4–5 lobed with the lobes up to 1 cm. long, ribbed, glabrous to sparsely puberlous outside, sometimes with irregularly scattered small glands.
    Corolla
    Corolla large, 6–12 cm. long, widely cup-shaped, at first yellowish, later becoming reddish to purplish, streaked darker inside and outside, glabrous except sometimes at the point where the filaments become free; limb bilabiate, the superior lip bilobed, the lower one 3-lobed and recurved, lobes more or less rounded; corolla tube cylindrical at the base and suddenly widening and incurving upwards.
    Stamens
    Stamen-filament 3.5–6.5 cm. long, adnate up to 1–2.5 cm. from the base of the corolla tube; anthers 7–13 mm. long; staminode rather large.
    Disc
    Disk c. 1 cm. in diam. 2–3 mm. high, fleshy, irregularly lobed, sometimes almost truncate.
    Ovary
    Ovary 8–15 mm. long, cylindrical; style 4–7(8) cm. long, filiform.
    Fruits
    Fruit sausage-shaped up to 1 m. long and 18 cm. in diam., pendulous from a long peduncle, greyish-brown, lenticellate in the youth, massive, wood-walled, indehiscent.
    Seeds
    Seeds 10 x 7 mm. numerous, wingless, embedded in a fibrous pulp; testa coriaceous; cotyledons folded.
    [KSP]
    Use
    Food, medicine, timber.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Ecuador, Mexico Southwest

    Common Names

    English
    Sausage tree

    Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Nov 1, 2008 Onana, J.-M. [3607], Cameroon K000580298
    Jan 1, 2008 Etuge, M. [2004], Cameroon K000436152
    Jan 1, 2008 Etuge, M. [2004], Cameroon K000437530
    Oct 1, 2005 Cheek, M. [11669], Cameroon K000338410
    Dec 1, 2003 Zapfack, L. [2004], Cameroon K000746017
    Dec 1, 2003 Ghogue, J.-P. [1035], Cameroon K000746018
    Jul 1, 2001 Lane, P. [295], Cameroon K000108472
    Jul 1, 2001 Elad, M. [111], Cameroon K000108473
    Jul 1, 2001 Groves, M. [25], Cameroon K000108474
    Jul 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [8882], Cameroon K000108463
    Jul 1, 2001 Ghogue, J.-P. [76], Cameroon K000108465
    Jul 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [2701], Cameroon K000108470
    Jul 1, 2001 Cable, S. [2796], Cameroon K000108471
    Jul 1, 2001 Kenfack, D. [251], Cameroon K000108476
    May 1, 1999 Onana, J.-M. [632], Cameroon K000339225
    Jan 1, 1999 Pollard, B.J. [75], Cameroon K000339224
    Jan 1, 1992 Wheatley, J.I. [232], Cameroon K000518908
    Jan 1, 1992 Wheatley, J.I. [232], Cameroon K000518925
    Jan 1, 1990 Manning, S.D. [499], Cameroon K000029052
    Jan 1, 1987 Manning, S.D. [588], Cameroon K000029053
    Jul 1, 1983 Welwitsch. [489], Angola K000430450 Unknown type material
    Jul 1, 1983 Welwitsch. [489], Angola K000430451 Unknown type material
    Jul 1, 1983 Welwitsch. [489], Angola K000430452 Unknown type material
    May 1, 1983 Allen, C.E.F. [30], Zimbabwe K000430449 syntype
    Jan 1, 1965 Grens, J. [289], Botswana K000489226
    Jan 1, 1960 Binuyo, A. [FHI 35083], Cameroon K000029044
    Jan 1, 1960 Binuyo, A. [FHI 35083], Cameroon K000029045
    Jan 1, 1960 Binuyo, A. [FHI 35083], Cameroon K000029043
    Jan 1, 1960 Hepper, F.N. [1878], Cameroon K000029046
    Jan 1, 1960 Hepper, F.N. [1878], Cameroon K000029047
    Faulkner, H. [3030] 25772.000
    Sabatier, M. [s.n.] K000430380
    Sabatier, M. [s.n.] K000430381
    Vogel [88], Ghana K000430396 Unknown type material
    Chevalier, A. [3315], Burkina Faso K000386441
    Chevalier, A. [3315], Burkina Faso K000386442
    Chevalier, A. [3313], Mali K000386443
    Chevalier, A. [1208], Mali K000386444
    Chevalier, A. [3314], Burkina Faso K000386445
    Chevalier, A. [3314], Burkina Faso K000386446
    Laferrere, M. [84], Burkina Faso K000386447
    Smith, P.A. [1158], Botswana K000489223
    Biegel, H. [3848], Botswana K000489224
    Grens, J. [373], Botswana K000489225
    Elffers, R. [109], Botswana K000489227
    Story, R. [4738], Botswana K000489228
    Brown, R.C. [7743], Botswana K000511039
    Thompson, S.A. [1396], Cameroon K000029048
    Thompson, S.A. [1396], Cameroon K000029049
    Thomas, D.W. [2796], Cameroon K000029050
    Brunt, M.A. [1233], Cameroon K000029042
    Nemba, J. [41], Cameroon K000029051
    Harvey, Y.B. [151], Cameroon K000338857
    Gossweiler, J. [1101], Angola K001009734
    Gossweiler, J. [1101], Angola K001009735

    First published in W.J.Hooker, Niger Fl.: 463 (1849)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Bignoniaceae Southen Africa Botany Diversity Network Reports 37.
    • Curtis, B. & Mannheimer, C. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia: 1-688. The National Botanical Research Institute, Windhoek.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Diniz, M.A. (1988). 124. Bignoniaceae Flora Zambesiaca 8(3): 61-85. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Gentry, A. H. (1985). Bignoniaceae Flore du Gabon 27: 19-56. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Liben, L. (1977). Bignoniaceae Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaïre - Rwanda - Burundi): 1-39. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Meise.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.

    Not accepted by

    • Smithies, S.I. (2003). Bignoniceae, In: Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 312-313. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria. [Cited as Kigelia africana.]
    • Burger, W. & Gentry, A.H. (2000). Bignoniaceae Fieldiana Botany New Series, n.s., 41: 77-160. Field Museum of Natural History. [Cited as Kigelia pinnata.]

    Literature

    Kew Species Profiles
    • Ramundo, D. (2009). Red List of South African Plants, Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.
    • Bidgood, S., Verdcourt, B. & Vollesen, K. (2006). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Bignoniaceae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
    • Maundu, P. & Tengas, B. (2005). Useful Trees and Shrubs for Kenya. World Agroforestry Centre.
    • Grace, O. & Davis, S.D. (2002). Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. In Oyen, l.P.A. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (eds), Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Precursor. PROTA Programme, Wageningen, the Netherlands. Pp. 98-102.
    • Roodt, V. (1993). The Shell Guide to the Common Trees of the Okavango Delta and Moremi Game Reserve. Shell, Gabarone.

    • Launert, G., Bell, E. & Goncalves, M. (eds) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca, Volume 8, Part 3. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
    • Burkill, H.M. (1985). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa, Volume 1. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
    • Harris, B. & Baker, H. (1958). Pollination in Kigelia africana. J. W. Afr. Sci. Assn. Vol. 4: No. 1.
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Aubrév. Fl. For. C. Iv. ed. 2, 3: 242, t. 231
    • Fl. For. Soud.-Guin. 484, t. 111
    • Chev. Bot. 487
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 536
    • incl. var. aethiopica (Decne.) Aubrév. ex Sillans and var. elliptica (Sprague) R. Sillans in Not. Syst. 14: 324 (1853).
    • Sillans in Not. Syst. 14: 323 (1853)
    • in Fl. Nigrit. 463 (1849)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Curtis, B. & Mannheimer, C. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia: 1-688. The National Botanical Research Institute, Windhoek.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Smithies, S.I. (2003). Bignoniceae, In: Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 312-313. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Diniz, M.A. (1990). Bignoniaceae Flora de Moçambique 120: 1-35. Instituto de Investigaçao Científuca Tropical.
    • Gentry, A.H. (1984). Bignoniacées Flore du Cameroun 27: 26-61. Ministère de l'enseignement supérieur et de la recherche scientifique (Mesres), Yaoundé.
    • Gentry, A.H. (1977). Bignoniaceae Flora of Ecuador 7: 1-172. Botanical Institute, University of Göteborg, Riksmuseum, Stockholm.
    • Liben, L. (1977). Bignoniaceae Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaïre - Rwanda - Burundi): 1-39. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Meise.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hutchinson, J. & Dalziel, J.M. (1931). Bignoniaceae Flora of West Tropical Africa 2(1): 237-242.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Som. 3: 303, fig. 209 (2006).
    • K.T.S.L.: 591, fig., map (1994)
    • F.Z. 8(3): 83, t. 18 (1988)
    • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 381, t. 485 (1987)
    • Fl. Gabon 27: 27, t. 5 (1985)
    • Fl. Cameroun 27: 32, t. 9 (1984)
    • Hamilton, Uganda Forest Trees: 203 (1981)
    • Palgrave, Trees S. Afr.: 833 (1981)
    • Opera Bot.: 59: 77 (1980)
    • Liben, F.A.C. Bignon.: 4, t. 1 (1977)
    • Palmer & Pitman, Trees S. Afr. 3: 2011, figs. & photos. (1973)
    • Prodr. Fl. SW. Afr. 128: 3 (1967)
    • Acta Trop. Suppl. 8: 148 (1964)
    • F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 2: 385, fig. 294 (1963)
    • T.T.C.L.: 71 (1949)
    • F.T.A. 4(2): 536 (1906)
    • Niger Fl.: 463 (1849)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    [A] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    [B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    [C]
    [D] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [E] © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [F] © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [G]
    [H] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    [I] © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/