1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Apera Adans.
      1. Apera spica-venti (L.) P.Beauv.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Europe to Siberia, Medit. to NW. Iran.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual. Culms geniculately ascending, or decumbent; 20-100 cm long; 3-5 -noded. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 3-12 mm long. Leaf-blades 7-25 cm long; 3-10 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scabrous; rough adaxially, or on both sides.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; ovate; effuse; 10-25 cm long; 3-15 cm wide. Primary panicle branches spreading; whorled at most nodes; profusely divided; 3-7 cm long. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels 1-3 mm long; scaberulous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 2.5-3 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus pubescent.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 2.5-3 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus pubescent.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; exceeding apex of florets; shiny. Lower glume lanceolate; 2.2-2.5 mm long; 0.75-0.9 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume primary vein scaberulous. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 2.5-3 mm long; 1.1-1.2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein scaberulous. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate; 2.1-2.8 mm long; membranous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma surface scaberulous; rough above. Lemma apex acute; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn subapical; flexuous; 5-10 mm long overall. Palea 0.9-1 length of lemma; 2 -veined.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 1-2 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid. Endosperm liquid.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, and western Asia. North America: north-central USA, northeast USA, and southeast USA.
    Reference
    Aveneae. FW 1995.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Canary Is., Central European Rus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Egypt, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Irkutsk, Italy, Kazakhstan, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, Libya, Madeira, Mauritania, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Northwest European R, Poland, Romania, Sardegna, South European Russi, Spain, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Tuva, Ukraine, West Siberia, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Algeria, Baltic States, California, Connecticut, Corse, Delaware, District of Columbia, Finland, Idaho, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Maine, Maryland, Masachusettes, Michigan, Missouri, New York, North European Russi, Norway, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Sakhalin, Sweden, Texas, Vermont, Washington

    Apera spica-venti (L.) P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Sheahan, M-C. [MCS303], United Kingdom K000696412

    First published in Ess. Agrostogr.: 31 (1812)

    Accepted by

    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    [A] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [B] © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [C] © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0