1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Lolium L.
      1. Lolium pratense (Huds.) Darbysh.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Azores, Europe to Siberia and W. Himalaya.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Caespitose; clumped moderately. Cataphylls inconspicuous. Rhizomes short; fleshy; not obviously scaly. Basal innovations extravaginal, or intravaginal. Culms of moderate stature; straight; without nodal roots. Culm-internodes terete. Culm-nodes without exudate; glabrous. Lateral branches lacking. Leaves basal and cauline; 3-5 per branch. Leaf-sheaths tight; unthickened at base; open for most of their length; without keel; striately veined. Ligule an eciliate membrane; membranous; white; erose; truncate. Leaf-blade base symmetrical. Leaf-blades straight, or flexuous; linear in section; firm, or flaccid; light green, or mid-green. Leaf-blade midrib evident. Leaf-blade venation distinct; with subepidermal sclerenchyma strands similar in size; with subepidermal sclerenchyma attached to veins above and below; without layer of subepidermal sclerenchyma masking vein striation. Leaf-blade surface glabrous. Leaf-blade margins smooth; glabrous. Leaf-blade apex attenuate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; with 1 peduncles per sheath. Peduncle straight, or flexuous; terete; eglandular; glabrous. Panicle contracted; lanceolate; continuous; loose; straight; 15-20 cm long; 3-5 cm wide. Primary panicle branches ascending; moderately divided; bearing spikelets almost to the base. Panicle branches straight, or arcuate.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 5-6 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 9-11 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Spikelet callus glabrous. Rhachilla internodes scaberulous. Floret callus glabrous.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 5-6 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 9-11 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Spikelet callus glabrous. Rhachilla internodes scaberulous. Floret callus glabrous.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; subequal in width; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 2.7-3 mm long; 0.8-0.9 length of upper glume; membranous; mid-green; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 3.7-4 mm long; 0.6 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous, or chartaceous; mid-green; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex obtuse, or acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic; symmetrical; 6-6.5 mm long; chartaceous, or herbaceous; mid-green.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: Macaronesia. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, and China. Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: north-central. North America: Subarctic. South America: southern South America.
    Reference
    Poeae. Stancik 2005.

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Hungary, Romania

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Altay, Austria, Azores, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Central European Rus, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East European Russia, Finland, France, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Iceland, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Svalbard, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Algeria, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, British Columbia, California, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Falkland Is., Florida, Georgia, Greenland, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kuril Is., Labrador, Louisiana, Magadan, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Québec, Rhode I., Sakhalin, Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yukon

    Lolium pratense (Huds.) Darbysh. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Novon 3: 242 (1993)

    Not accepted by

    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Festuca pratensis.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Marhold, K. (ed.) (2012). IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 13 Taxon 61: 889-902.
    • Bergmeier, E. (2011). New floristic records, confirmations and other phytogeographical notes from Crete (Greece) Willdenowia 41: 167-177.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1957). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 1: 1-547. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Roshevitz, R.J. & al. (eds.) (1950). Flora Kirgizskoi SSR 2: 1-315. Frunze : Izd-vo KirgizFAN SSSR.
    • Merkodovich, N.A. (ed.) (1941). Flora Uzbekistana 1: 1-566. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Fedtschenko, B.A. & al. (1932). Flora Turkmenii 1: 1-340. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0