Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders and as animal food and an ornamental plant.
Ceiba pentandra (Malvaceae (Bombacoideae))

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Tall tree with straight trunk and ± horizontal main branches; bark smooth, usually with scattered conical spines to 1.5 cm long; young branches glabrous or pubescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 5–9-foliolate; leaflets narrowly elliptic-obovate, entire, acuminate, 7–20 x 1.8–6.5 cm, glabrous; petiole 5.5–25 cm long, at the apex expanded into an almost circular disk
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers often on leafless branches or present when the whole tree is leafless, in 1–15-flowered axillary clusters
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 9–15 mm long, lobed, glabrous outside, pubescent inside
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals pink or white, oblong, 2–3.5 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filament-tube 5–9 mm long; anthers coiled or reniform
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary glabrous or nearly so; style 2.5–3.3 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule ± woody, smooth, brown, oblong-ellipsoid, up to c. 26 x 11 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds subglobose, c. 6 mm across.
Distribution
S1–3; native in America and probably parts of Africa and SE Asia.
Vernacular
Geed suuf (Somali); kapok.

[FWTA]

Bombacaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A tree, up to 200 ft. high, in forest and planted by villages
Morphology Trunk
Trunk with large buttresses
Morphology Branches
Branches in different forms without prickles or with obtuse or acutely pointed stout prickles, generally prickly in the young state
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white, appearing either when the whole tree is bare or on leafless branches
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits in some forms bursting on the tree, in others often falling
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Floss white or grey.

[FZ]

Bombacaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

Morphology General Habit
Tree up to 18 m. tall (often much taller outside our area) with horizontally branched crown and very straight trunk; bark pale grey, smooth, with scattered conical spines 1–1·5 cm. long, at least when young.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 5–9-foliolate (usually 7, very rarely more than 9); petiole up to c. 15 cm. long, glabrous; leaflet-lamina articulated to a ± suborbicular disk at the apex of the petiole, up to 16 × 6·5 cm., narrowly elliptic or oblanceolate-elliptic, acuminate at the apex, cuneate at the base, margin undulate or rarely obscurely toothed near the apex, slightly paler below, glabrous on both sides, with 7–10 pairs of nerves slightly raised above, scarcely raised below, looping within the margin; petiolules up to 0·8 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in axillary fascicles of 1–3; peduncle 2–3 cm. long, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx c. 1·5 × 1·2 cm., campanulate, lobed i- of the way down with rounded lobes, glabrous outside, pubescent within.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals rose-coloured or white, c. 3·5 × 0·7 cm., oblong-spathulate, rounded at the apex, tomentose outside, glabrous within.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal tube c. 5 mm. long; phalanges of 2–3 filaments c. 2 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary glabrous or nearly so; style c. 3·3 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule c. 8–20 × 4–11 cm., oblong-ellipsoid, valves smooth, brown, the whole filled with a copious whitish silky wool.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds many, c. 6 mm. in diam., dark brown, subglobose.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 0 - 2000 m.
Distribution
Native and cultivated in Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Morphology General Habit
Tree.

[FTEA]

Bombacaceae, H. Beentje (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Tree to 35(-50) m., with very straight trunk; main branches at right-angles to the trunk; crown layered in young trees; bole buttressed; bark smooth, in Flora area usually with scattered conical spines 1-1.5 cm. long.
Morphology Branches
Young branches glabrous or pubescent; older branches often spiny.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 5-9-foliolate; stipules quickly caducous, leaving a large scar; petiole 5.5-25 cm. long, glabrous or sparsely pubescent in young leaves, pulvinate at the base, at the apex expanded into an almost circular disk; leaflets narrowly elliptic or narrowly obovate, 7-20 cm. long, 1.8-6.5 cm. wide, acuminate at the apex, cuneate at the base, undulate at the margin, or rarely obscurely toothed near the apex in young leaves, glabrous; secondary veins in 14-20 pairs; petiolules 1-10 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers often on leafless branches, or sometimes present when the whole tree is leafless; inflorescence axillary, fasciculate, 1-15-flowered; pedicels 1.8-4.4 cm. long, glabrous, with scars of the caducous bracteoles.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx campanulate, 9-15 mm. long, 11-14 mm. wide, lobed for about one-fifth of its length, the lobes rounded or subacute, glabrous outside and pubescent inside.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals pink or white, oblong to spathulate, 2-3.5 cm. long, 0.7-1.5 cm. wide, apex rounded or subacute, tomentose outside and glabrous inside.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Filament-tube 5-9 mm. long, the 5 bundles 15-35 mm. long; anthers coiled or reniform, 3-5 mm. across.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary semi-inferior, 3-5 mm. high, 3-6 mm. across, glabrous or nearly so; style 25-33 mm. long, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule at least somewhat woody, loculicidal, smooth-valved, brown, oblong-ellipsoid, 8-26(-60 according to Fl. Cameroun) cm. long, 4-11 cm. across, with a persistent calyx.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds many, subglobose, ± 6 mm. across, dark brown, embedded in copious white or greyish silky wool.
Figures
Fig. 4.
Habitat
Closed moist forest, also riverine or lacustrine; 840-1200 m.
Distribution
T1 U2 tropical America, Africa (see note) and SE. Asiaalso widely cultivated

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
bonga, bonga bruja, bongo, ceiba, ceiba blanca, ceiba bonga, ceiba bongo, ceiba bruja, ceiba Cartage ceiba colorada, ceiba de agua, ceibaebruja, ceibo, ceibo macho, lano, lupu yuque, ceiba de la balso, cumaca, jabillo, chivecha, toborachi

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa y cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2000 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Árbol
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FSOM]
Use
Cultivated for its kapok (the hairs of the carpel walls, used in stuffing mattresses etc.)

[UPB]
Use Animal Food
Eaten by animals (Carvajal et al. 2014).
Use Environmental Ornamentals
Live plant (in situ) - Ornamental (Carvajal et al. 2014).
Use Materials Wood
Used for planks (Carvajal et al. 2014). Used for furniture (López-Camacho et al 2016).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Native to:

Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mozambique, Nauru, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Samoa, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Tanzania, Thailand, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre

Spanish
Ceiba, bonga, ceiba bonga, ceiba bruja, bongo, chivecha, ceibo, cumaca, toborachi, balso, bonga, ceiba de lana, lano, yuque, jabillo.

Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2009 Gómez Chalaga, B. [894], Mexico K001259003
Jan 1, 2009 Sasaki, D. [2527], Mato Grosso K000579741
Jun 1, 2008 Jones, B.L. [243], Sabah K000224951
Jan 1, 2008 Ibarra M., G. [5975], Mexico K001259001
Jan 1, 2008 Ibarra M., G. [5975], Mexico K001259002
Jan 2, 2006 Barbon et al. [1863], Philippines K000223738
Oct 1, 2005 Cheek, M. [11067], Cameroon K000337780
Oct 1, 2005 Etuge, M. [5215], Cameroon K000337781
Oct 1, 2005 Etuge, M. [5215], Cameroon K000338423
Jul 28, 1993 Daramola, B.O. [206], Nigeria K000211505
Jul 28, 1993 Daramola, B.O. [206], Nigeria K000211504
Jul 28, 1993 Daramola, B.O. [206], Nigeria K000211507
Jan 1, 1985 Bullock, S.H. [1550], Mexico K000724037
Jan 1, 1985 Bullock, S.H. [1550], Mexico K000724038
Jan 1, 1966 Morton [3675], Sierra Leone K000211492
Milne-Redhead, E. [5019], Nigeria 15359.000
McWinter, J. [42], Madagascar 31901.000
McWinter, J.H. [42], Madagascar 32135.000
Milliken, W. [M.819], Brazil 54107.000
Harris, D.J. [334], Central African Republic 55586.000
Gartlan, J.S. [6], Cameroon 6049.051
Mori, S. [19244], Ghana K000211499
Pennington, T.D. [9527], Mexico K000724034
Batten-Poole, W.H. [231], Nigeria K000211506
Welwitsch [5408], Angola K001259227
Foster, E.W. [372], Nigeria K000211513
Mildbraed, G. W. J. [10552], Cameroon K000095000
Simá, P. [1974], Mexico K000724035
Chapman, H.M. [3807], Nigeria K000211503
Davey, J.T. [45], Mali K000211490
Hinds [1841], Mexico K000724031
Palmer, E. [603], Mexico K000724028
Espirito Santo, J. [1730], Guinea-Bissau K000211489
Darko, K.O. [2045], Ghana K000211496
Vigne, C. [3469], Ghana K000211510
Chevalier, A.J.B. [23689], Benin K000211516
Kersting [710], Togo K000211501
Attafuah, A. [5107], Ghana K000211498
Palmer, E. [603], Mexico K000724029
Irvine, F.R. [1832], Ghana K000211512
Foster, E.W. [372], Nigeria K000211514
Pennington, T.D. [9461], Mexico K000724033
Welwitsch [5404], Angola K001259230
Rosevear, D. R. [80/37], Cameroon K000105003
Baldwin, J.T. Jr. [10659], Liberia K000211493
Rose, J.N. [1887], Mexico K000724032
Palmer, E. [103], Mexico K000724030
Frith, A.C. [162], Gambia K000211508
Wit, H.C.D. de [7918], Côte d'Ivoire K000211494
Vigne, C. [1539], Ghana K000211497
s.coll. [s.n.], Mexico K000724036
Irvine, F.R. [1832], Ghana K000211511
Chevalier, A.J.B. [23687], Benin K000211517
Kersting [713], Togo K000211502
Kersting [709], Togo K000211500
Welwitsch [5406], Angola K001259229
Unwin, A.H. [21], Nigeria K000211515
Welwitsch [5405], Angola K001259228
Gartlan, J.S. [6], Cameroon K000105004
Latilo, M.G. [34404], Nigeria K000211509
Deighton, F.C. [3615], Sierra Leone K000211491
Lowe, J. [s.n.], Cape Verde K000211488

First published in Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2: 244 (1791)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1980). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 1: 1-508. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Florence, J. (2004). Flore de la Polynésie Française 2: 1-503. IRD editions, Paris.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Niembro Rocas, A., Vázquez Torres, M. & Sáchez Sáchez, O. (2010). Árboles de Veracruz 100 especies para la reforstación estratégica: 1-253. Gombierno del Estado de Veracruz, México.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Carvajal, L., Ariza, W., Caro, L., Valero, N. (2014). Especies forestales representativas del Sur Oriente de Boyacá. Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, Colombia
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • López-Camacho, R., Pulido, E., Diaz, J. (2016). APP Especies Maderables Versión 2 [online application software]. Retrieved from http://itunes.apple.com

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Aubrév. Fl. For. C. Iv. 2: 228, t. 216
  • Bakhuizen in Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., sér. 3, 6: 194 (q.v. for synonymy)
  • Fl. For. Soud.-Guin. 169.
  • Fruct. 2: 244, t. 133, fig. 1 (1791)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1980). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 1: 1-508. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 243 (1962).
  • Gaertner, Fruct. & Sem. 2: 244, t. 133 (1791).
  • J.-F. Villiers in Fl. Gabon 22: 36, t. 10 (1973)
  • J.-F. Villiers, Fl. Cameroun 19: 76, t. 21 (1975).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 75 (1949).
  • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 335 (1958).
  • Robyns in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 51: 48 (1964).
  • Robyns in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 10: 204 (1963)
  • Wild & Gonçalves in Fl. Moçamb. 26:10, t. 1B (1979).
  • Wild in Flora Zambesiaca 1: 516, t. 97B (1961).

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Wood Anatomy Microscope Slides
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/