Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.
Talinum fruticosum

[KBu]

Mendoza F., J. & Wood, J.R.I. 2013. Taxonomic revision of Talinum (Talinaceae) in Bolivia with a note on the occurrence of Phemeranthus (Montiaceae). Kew Bulletin 68: 233. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-013-9454-0

Conservation
A widespread weed throughout the neotropics including Bolivia so can be categorised as Least Concern (LC) within the IUCN (2001) guidelines.
Distribution
Widely distributed as a weed in tropical America from the United States through Mexico, Nicaragua and South America to the north of Argentina. In Bolivia it is known from Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz and Tarija. It grows in dry, semi-deciduous forest including Yungas forest, dry chaco forest and open woodland of the warmer inter-Andean valleys with chaco influence which intergrades with Tucuman-Bolivian forest. It is found between 80 and 1500 m, always in places disturbed by the impact of humans such as roadsides, tracks and forest edges.
Morphology General Habit
Erect, ascending or (rarely) decumbent fleshy herb 0.3 – 0.5 m in height; root usually tuberous, napiform, 1.5 – 4 × 0.8 – 2 cm long; central stem present, robust, fleshy, terete, usually with 2 – 3 secondary stems arising from the base; branching moderate to abundant in the upper half of the stem
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate from the base, but frequently becoming verticillate below the inflorescence, fleshy, subsessile or with petioles 2 – 5 (– 10) mm long; laminas fleshy, obovate to elliptic, (1.5 –) 3 – 7 (– 10) × 1 – 3 (– 4) cm, apex rounded or, rarely, acute, base attenuate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers open during the day from 09 to 16 hours, large, ± 1.5 cm in diam., numerous, 7 – 30 flowers per inflorescence; sepals 2, narrowly triangular, 6 – 9 × 4 – 5 mm, subequal, usually caducous, apex strongly aristate; petals obovate, straight or weakly reflexed, apex rounded or obscurely mucronate, deep or pale pink, white or (rarely) red; filaments 30 – 40, unequal; anthers elliptic, bright yellow; style exceeding the filaments, filiform, terete; stigma trifid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a weakly 3-angled subglobose capsule opening by three separate valves, valves usually caducous, intervalvular membrane and filament absent; seeds (Fig. 1A) lenticular, 1 – 1.2 × 0.8 – 1 mm, brown or blackish and superficially reticulate, the surface being covered with small, irregularly arranged papillose protuberances, these denser towards the margins; membranous caruncle absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence of trifurcately branched terminal cymes (5 –) 8 – 15 (– 20) × (1.5 –) 3 – 6 (– 9) cm, subtended by a triangular winged peduncle; floral branches verticillate or, below, in 3s (rarely inflorescence unbranched), triangular, winged, 0.5 – 1.5 cm long; bracts and bracteoles linear-lanceolate, 3 – 5 mm long; pedicels filiform, scarcely widened below flower
Note
This is the most variable species in the genus and shows variation in size, habit (erect, decumbent or clambering), leaf shape (broad to narrow), branching of the inflorescence, number, size and colour of flowers and the development of papillae on the seeds (Fig. 1A). The amount of variation raises doubts over whether this is a single highly variable species as a consequence of its wide distribution and adaptation to different habitats or whether two or more closely related taxa are involved. It is hoped that with the aid of molecular studies these uncertainties can be resolved in the future. For the time being in this paper a highly variable Talinum fruticosums.l. is accepted. Within this broad definition, this species is not easily confused with any other. The inflorescence, which is composed of trifurcate terminal cymes with up to 30 flowers, the 3-angled, winged stems and inflorescence branches and the large pink to reddish (rarely whitish) flowers 1.5 cm in diam. make this species easily recognisable in Bolivia.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
aclaraboyos, hierba de sapo, lechuga platanera, verdolaga, verdolaga montañera, espinaca de filipinas, lustrosa grande, espinaca de surinam, verdolaga francés, espinaca de java

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 5 - 1580 m.; Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FWTA]

Portulacaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology General Habit
Erect herb with fleshy leaves, woody below
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers pink, rarely white
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule straw-coloured
Ecology
A naturalized weed, sometimes cultivated.

Doubtfully present in:

Suriname

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Assam, Benin, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, New Mexico, Nigeria, Ogasawara-shoto, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Togo, Vietnam, Zaïre

Talinum fruticosum (L.) Juss. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Aug 1, 2005 Etuge, M. [5236], Cameroon K000199780
Jan 1, 1989 Westphal [10062], Cameroon K000106384
Palmer, E. [415], Tamaulipas K000424598 Unknown type material
Sep 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1546], Cameroon Talinum triangulare K000008460
Jan 1, 1992 Watts, J. [354], Cameroon Talinum triangulare K000381357
Thompson, S.A. [1492], Cameroon Talinum triangulare K000106385
Hutchinson, J. [137], Cameroon Talinum triangulare K000106386

First published in Gen. Pl.: 312 (1789)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Mendoza F., J.M. & Wood, J.R.I. (2013). Taxonomic revision of Talinum (Talinaceae) in Bolivia with a note on the occurrence of Phemeranthus (Montiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 233-247. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Nelson-Sutherland, C. (2010). Adiciones y Comentarios a la Flora de Honduras Ceiba; a Scientific and Technical Journal Published by Zamorano 51: 70-88.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.

Literature

Kew Bulletin

  • (Jussieu 1789: 312).
  • Adanson, M. (1763). Familles des plantes. Vol. 2. Vincent, Paris.
  • Arnott, G. A. Walker (1831). On some new species of Portulaceae. Edinburgh. J. Nat. Geogr. Sci. 3: 354 – 355.
  • Bacigalupo, N. M. (1993). Talinum nocturnum N. M. Bacigal. (Portulaceae), unanuevaespecie del Chaco Paraguayo. In: L. Ramella & P. Perret (eds), NotulaeadFloramparaquaiensem. Candollea 48(2): 511 – 516.
  • Carolin, R. (1985). NotassobrePortulacaceae de la Argentina. Parodiana 3: 329 – 332.
  • Foster, R. C. (1958). A catalogue of the ferns and flowering plants of Bolivia. Contr. Gray Herb. 184: 1 – 223.
  • Fries, R. E. (1905). ZurKenntnis der Alpen Flora imNördlichenArgentinien. Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal. Ser. 4, 1: 1 – 205.
  • Gaertner, J. (1791). De fructibus et seminibus plantarum, Vol. 2, part 2. G. H. Schramm, Tübingen.
  • Grisebach, A. H. R. (1879). Symbolaeadfloramargentinum. Dieterich, Göttingen.
  • IUCN (2001). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.
  • Jacquin, N. J. (1760). Enumeratiosystematica plantarum quas in InsulisCaribaeisvicinaqueAmericescontinentedetexitnovasaut jam cognitasemendavit. Apud T. Haak, LugduniBatavorum.
  • Jussieu, A. L. de (1789). Genera plantarum. ViduamHerissant et TheophilumBarrois, Paris.
  • Linnaeus, C. (1759). SystemaNaturae, ed. 10, vol. 2. Stockholm.
  • Linnaeus, C. (1762). Species Plantarum ed. 2, vol. 1. Uppsala.
  • Linnaeus, C. (1771). Mantissa plantarum altera. Stockholm.
  • Mabberley, D. J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-Book. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Nee, M. (2004). Flora de la Región del Parque Nacional Amboró Bolivia. Vol. 2. Editorial FAN, Santa Cruz.
  • Nyffeler, R. & Eggli, U. (2010). DistintegratingPortulaceae: A new familial classification of the suborder Portulacineae (Caryophyllales) based on molecular and morphological data. Taxon 59: 227 – 240.
  • Nyffeler, R. (2007). The closest relatives of cacti: Insights from phylogenetic analyses of chloroblast and mitochondrial sequences with special emphaqsis on relationships in the tribe Anacampseroteae. Amer. J. Bot. 94: 89 – 101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Price, T. A. & Ferguson, D. J. (2012). A new combination in Phemeranthus (Montiaceae) and notes on the circumscription of Phemeranthus and Talinum (Talinaceae) from the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Novon 22: 67 – 69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Wijnands, D. O. & Westphal-Stevels, J. M. C. (1985). Proposal [785] to change the citation and nomenclature of the conserved type of 2406 Talinum Adanson. Taxon 34: 309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Willdenow, C. L. (1799). Species Plantarum Vol. 2. ed. 4. G. C. Nauk, Berlin.
  • Zuloaga, F. O., Morrone, O., Belgrano, M. J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds) (2008). Catálogo de las PlantasVasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay). Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 107: i – xxi, 2287 – 3348.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1996). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 10: 1-426. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Mendoza F., J.M. & Wood, J.R.I. (2013). Taxonomic revision of Talinum (Talinaceae) in Bolivia with a note on the occurrence of Phemeranthus (Montiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 233-247. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (ed.) (1971-1976). Flora Malesiana 7: 1-876. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0