1. Family: Asparagaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Camassia Lindl.
      1. Camassia leichtlinii (Baker) S.Watson

        Camassia leichtlinii was named in honour of Maximilian Leichtlin (1831-1910) of Baden Baden. He was a keen grower and hybridiser of bulbous plants, and corresponded regularly with Kew botanist J.G. Baker, often exchanging plants with the Gardens. It is the tallest of the six species within the genus Camassia, and one of the best bulbs for naturalising in long grass. It has star-shaped flowers, which open in the afternoon and are creamy-white, pale green, blue or purplish, and can be double. There are two subspecies: C. leichtlinii subsp. leichtlinii which usually has white flowers, and C. leichtlinii subsp. suksdorfii, which has blue or purplish flowers. The cultivar C. leichtlinii ‘Lady Eva Price’ is named after the wife of Sir Henry Price, who was the owner of Wakehurst in the 1960s. It is a particularly attractive form of C. leichtlinii subsp. suksdorfii.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    Great camas is a bulbous plant native to North America, with broader leaves than other species of this genus, that bears many star-shaped blue or whitish flowers.

    Camassia leichtlinii was named in honour of Maximilian Leichtlin (1831-1910) of Baden Baden. He was a keen grower and hybridiser of bulbous plants, and corresponded regularly with Kew botanist J.G. Baker, often exchanging plants with the Gardens. It is the tallest of the six species within the genus Camassia, and one of the best bulbs for naturalising in long grass. It has star-shaped flowers, which open in the afternoon and are creamy-white, pale green, blue or purplish, and can be double. There are two subspecies: C. leichtlinii subsp. leichtlinii which usually has white flowers, and C. leichtlinii subsp. suksdorfii, which has blue or purplish flowers. The cultivar C. leichtlinii ‘Lady Eva Price’ is named after the wife of Sir Henry Price, who was the owner of Wakehurst in the 1960s. It is a particularly attractive form of C. leichtlinii subsp. suksdorfii.

    Species Profile

    Geography and distribution

    Native to North America, where it occurs from southern British Columbia to Washington, Oregon and California, where it is found in the Coast Range south to Napa County, and in the Sierra Nevada mountain range south to Mono and Tulare Counties.

    Description

    A bulbous plant with leaves up to 60 cm long and 2.5 cm wide. The flowering stems are up to 120 cm long and are leafless and unbranched, with numerous flowers. There are six more or less equal perianth segments (petals and sepals), each up to 5 cm long. The dead perianth segments remain twisted around the young capsule (fruit). Mature capsules are up to 2.5 cm long. The seeds are black, ovoid and about 2 mm long.

    Threats and conservation

    The once extensive populations of Camassiaspecies have been reduced by agricultural improvement of the meadows in which they grow.

    Uses

    Great camas is grown today as an ornamental, particularly in grass. However, for some native North Americans, bulbs of several Camassiaspecies (including Camassia leichtlinii) were an important food source. 

    Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, who led the United States’ first expedition to the Pacific coast of North America (1804-1806), first tasted Camassiabulbs after a difficult journey over the Bitterroot Mountains (part of the Rocky Mountains named after bitterroot, Lewisia rediviva), during which the expedition members almost starved and were reduced to eating some of their horses. After descending from the mountains in September 1805, Lewis and Clark were met by members of the Nez Perce tribe, who provided them with food, including bread made from Camassiabulbs.

    The bulbs were usually cooked by steaming them for a day or more in circular pits in the ground and used rather like potatoes to accompany meat or fish dishes, or to sweeten other foods. Some tribes, such as the Sooke and Songish, traded large quantities of Camassiabulbs with the Nootka in exchange for other foods.

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    The Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in Kew's seed bank vault at Wakehurst.

    Description of seeds:Average 1,000 seed weight = 8.05 gCollections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank: One

    This species at Kew

    Camassia leichtliniican be seen growing in the Rock Garden at Kew and the Bog Garden at Wakehurst. It usually flowers in late March and April.

    A related species, Camassia cusickii, can be seen naturalised in grass along the Riverside Walk close to Rhododendron Dell at Kew.

    Pressed and dried specimens of Camassiaspecies are held in Kew’s Herbarium, where they are available to researchers, by appointment. The details, including an image, of one of these can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue.

    View details and images of specimens

    Great camas bulbs are held in Kew’s Economic Botany Collection, where they are available to researchers, by appointment.

    Distribution
    Canada, USA
    Ecology
    Damp meadows.
    Conservation
    Not known to be threatened.
    Hazards

    None known, but poisonings have occurred when the similar-looking bulbs of the death camus Toxicoscordion venenosum (formerly Zigadenus venenosus; Melanthiaceae) have been eaten by mistake.

    [KSP]
    Use
    Ornamental, edible bulbs.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    British Columbia, California, Oregon, Washington

    Common Names

    English
    Great camas

    Camassia leichtlinii (Baker) S.Watson appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Suksdorf, W.N. [s.n.], Washington K000802744
    s.coll. [s.n.], USA K000802745
    s.coll. [s.n.], California K000802746

    First published in Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 20: 376 (1885)

    Accepted in:

    • [4] Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2002) Flora of North America North of Mexico 26: 1-723. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • [5] Govaerts, R. (1999) World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    • [1] World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (2010). The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [2] Fischer, U. (2006). Wer war Max Leichtlin (1831-1910)? Grüner Anz. 5.
    • [3] Mathew, B. (2004). Camassia leichtlinii ‘Lady Eva Price’. Curtis’s Bot. Mag. 205: 34-38.
    • [6] Phillips, R. & Rix, M. (1989). Bulbs. Pan/ Macmillan.
    • [7] Turner, N.C. & Bell, M.A.M. (1971). The ethnobotany of the Coast Salish Indians of Vancouver Island. Econ. Bot. 25(1): 63-104.
    • [8] Munz, P.A. (1959). A California Flora. University of California Press.
    • [9] Baker, J.G. (1877). Camassia esculenta var. leichtlinii. Curtis’s Bot. Mag. 103: tab. 6287.

    Sources

    International Plant Names Index
    The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
    [A] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [C]

    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [D] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [E] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0