1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Dichrostachys (A.DC.) Wight & Arn.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Africa, Tropical Asia, N. Australia.

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    The tribe Mimoseae (sensu Bentham, 1875) is retained here simply as a matter of convenience. All recent phylogenetic analyses indicate that Ingeae and Acacieae are derived from within Mimoseae (Chappill & Maslin, 1995; Käss & Wink, 1996; Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003; Herendeen et al., 2003a), making it a paraphyletic group at best. The most recent studies indicate that it may not even be monophyletic with respect to the Caesalpinioideae (Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003).

    Although the outline of a new tribal classification of the mimosoids is emerging, we await better-supported phylogenies (based on more extensive data) before formalising new stable and useful groups. Some parts of the classification proposed here are better supported than others. Notably, the basal branches in Fig. 24 are poorly supported in most analyses and the relationships among the groups are likely to change as we acquire more data. As presently indicated (Luckow et al., 2003), the type genus Mimosa falls within the derived Piptadenia group which is in turn sister, and basally branching, to elements of Acacia and Ingeae (Fig. 24). A more narrowly circumscribed Mimoseae sens. strict. will thus leave the bulk of Mimoseae sens. lat. (i.e., as treated here) in need of new tribal allocation. The most conspicuous difference between the classification presented here and that of Lewis & Elias (1981) is the inclusion of tribe Parkieae within Mimoseae. The former was circumscribed based on imbricate aestivation of the calyx, and was considered the basal tribe within the Mimosoideae (Elias, 1981a). Recent phylogenetic analyses (Chappill & Maslin, 1995; Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003; Herendeen et al., 2003a), indicate that the two genera in the Parkieae, Parkia and Pentaclethra, are not sister taxa (Fig. 24). Pentaclethra is nested within Mimoseae in Luckow et al. (2000), but is either sister to caesalpinioid taxa in Bruneau et al. (2001) and Herendeen et al. (2003a), or part of a basal polytomy with Mimoseae and caesalpinioid taxa (Luckow et al., 2003). Both Parkia and Pentaclethra are included in the tribe Mimoseae pending additional data and tribal recircumscription.

    Recent work (Luckow et al., submitted a) also indicates that the monospecific tribe Mimozygantheae should be subsumed in the Mimoseae near Piptadeniopsis and Prosopidastrum, currently in the Prosopis group. Otherwise, the informal groups within the Mimoseae recognised by Lewis & Elias (1981) are relatively well-supported by current phylogenies and only a few departures have been made from their system. Where relationships are either poorly supported or unresolved, the classification of Lewis & Elias (1981) is retained. The Xylia group is dismantled and the Adenanthera group recircumscribed to include Calpocalyx and Xylia . Desmanthus has been removed from the Dichrostachys group, as has Neptunia, in agreement with recent molecular and morphological phylogenetic studies (Harris et al., 1994; Hughes, 1998; Luckow, 1995, 1997). A new group is erected to accommodate Piptadeniastrum which is well separated from Newtonia in the most recent phylogeny (Luckow et al., 2000; 2003), and another to accommodate Cylicodiscus, which is more closely related to the clade containing the Prosopis, Leucaena, Dichrostachys, and Piptadenia groups than it is to the Newtonia group. Neptunia is well supported as sister to Prosopidastrum in recent analyses (Luckow et al., 2003) and is included in the Prosopis group here. Relationships of genera in the Prosopis group are not resolved, but the group is retained here as there is no evidence that it is not monophyletic. Genera newly described since 1981 include Alantsilodendron, Calliandropsis, Kanaloa, and Lemurodendron. Alantsilodendron and Calliandropsis are placed in the Dichrostachys group, and Kanaloa in the Leucaena group based on phylogenetic analyses (Hughes, 1998; Luckow, 1997; Luckow et al., 2000). Lemurodendron is tentatively included in the Newtonia group as suggested by Villiers & Guinet (1989). As treated here the Mimoseae comprises 40 genera and from (859)– 869–(879) species.

    In a well supported clade with Calliandropsis, Gagnebina and Alantsilodendron, in the Dichrostachys group (Luckow et al., 2003; Hughes et al., 2003), and sister to Gagnebina in the morphological analysis of Hughes (1998)
    Habit
    Trees and shrubs
    Ecology
    Tropical moist and seasonally dry forest, woodland, wooded grassland, bushland, thicket and xerophytic scrub
    Distribution
    Madagascar (centre of diversity with 9 endemic spp.); 1 sp. each in Ethiopia-Somalia and Socotra; 1 sp. in India; 1 sp. in N Australia, 1 sp. (D. cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn.), widespread in Africa and Asia but naturalised throughout the tropics
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Shrubs or small trees; spines present or absent; prickles absent
    Leaves
    Leaves bipinnate; rhachis glandular at insertion of pinnae; pinnae each with several to many pairs of leaflets
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of axillary spikes, solitary or appearing clustered; upper part of spike cylindrical, of hermaphrodite flowers, lower part broader, of differently coloured neuter flowers
    Calyx
    Calyx shortly 5-toothed
    Corolla
    Corolla-lobes 5, ± united below
    Stamens
    Stamens 10, all fertile in hermaphrodite flowers; anthers (in our species) with a stalked apical gland which is caducous
    Staminodes
    Staminodes of neuter flowers elongate, without anthers
    Fruits
    Pods clustered, coriaceous, narrowly oblong, compressed, usually irregularly contorted or spiral, indehiscent or opening irregularly or (not in our species) dehiscent
    Seeds
    Seeds (in the African species at least) ± compressed, ovoid to ellipsoid, smooth.
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, J.P.M. Brenan. Flora Zambesiaca 3:1. 1970

    Habit
    Shrubs or small trees; spines present or absent; prickles absent.
    Leaves
    Leaves 2-pinnate; rhachis glandular at the insertion of some at least of the pinnae; pinnae each with several to many pairs of leaflets.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of axillary spikes, solitary or appearing clustered; upper part of spike cylindric, of hermaphrodite flowers, lower part broader, of differently coloured neuter flowers.
    Calyx
    Calyx shortly 5-toothed.
    Corolla
    Petals 5, ± united below.
    Stamens
    Stamens 10, all fertile in hermaphrodite flowers; anthers (in our species) with a stalked apical gland which is caducous.
    Staminodes
    Staminodes of neuter flowers elongate, without anthers.
    Fruits
    Pods clustered, coriaceous, narrowly oblong or linear, compressed, usually irregularly contorted or spiral, indehiscent or opening irregularly or (not in our species) dehiscent.
    Seeds
    Seeds (in the African species at least) ± compressed, ovoid to ellipsoid, smooth.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Dichrostachys cinerea (sickle bush) is a widespread extremely variable species, with numerous subspecies and varieties; it is a multi-purpose tree, the timber is used for construction, fencing, carpentry, firewood and charcoal; other uses are as ornamentals, medicine, livestock fodder (goats), fibre from the bark (rope), bee forage, hunting bows and for soil improvement; it is sometimes an invasive and persistent weed of cultivated land

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Queensland, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Bangladesh, Cuba, Egypt, Florida, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mauritius, Pakistan, Réunion, Thailand, Windward Is.

    Dichrostachys (A.DC.) Wight & Arn. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient.: 271 (1834)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Benth. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 30: 381 (1875).
    • —F.T.A. 2: 332
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Prodr. Fl. Ind. Or.: 271 (1834) nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Prodr. Fl. Ind. Or.: 271 (1834)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0