Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is Caucasus, Tropical & Subtropical Old World to New Zealand and W. Pacific.
Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
berro macho, centella asiatica

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Creeping herb, rooting at the nodes; stems terete
Morphology Leaves
Leaves solitary or up to 6 together on short lateral shoots, the blade suborbicular to reniform, up to c. 9 cm in diam. (c. 2 cm in Somali material), cordate at the base, crenate, glabrous or almost so; petiole very variable in length, c. 1–2 cm in Somali plants, glabrous to softly pilose, with membranous sheaths
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels subcapitate, 1–7-flowered, on pilose peduncles up to 4 cm long; involucre of 2 broadly ovate bracts 1.5–5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals greenish to purplish, obtuse, c. 1 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits sessile or subsessile, c. 3–4 mm long and wide, glabrous or pilose; primary and secondary ribs prominent, with ± anastomosing veins between; stylopodium low and rounded; styles spreading, slender, c. 0.5–0.8 mm long.
Distribution
N2 East Africa, widespread in the tropics andextending into some subtropical areas.
Ecology
Altitude range c. 1300 m.
Note
First record for Somalia (near Moon, S of Laasqoray at 11°01’N, 48°25’E).

[FTEA]

Umbelliferae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Procumbent perennial herb, with a slender to stout taproot, rooting at the nodes, up to at least 1 m. in length but often less.
Morphology Stem
Stem terete, finely striate, green or suffused purplish.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves solitary or in groups of up to 6 on very short lateral shoots, thin to more commonly rather leathery in texture, very variable in size, separated by long slender internodes up to as much as 16 cm. long, the lamina roundish to reniform with a narrow to very wide basal sinus, ± 0.8–9 cm. wide and 0.8–5.5 cm. long from apex to petiole, ± regularly bluntly crenate or the teeth sharply mucronate all round or towards the base, palmately nerved with the nerves branched at ± halfway to the margin, secondary venation increasingly faint, surfaces glabrous or very faintly pilose; sheaths narrowly oblong, ± 3–12 mm., striate, membranous margined; petiole very variable in length, 3 mm. to 30 cm., glabrous or more commonly softly white-pilose at least below the lamina.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels subcapitate, 1–5 together on slender, thinly to densely pilose peduncles 3 mm. to 4 cm. long, which ± reflex in fruit.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 1–7 in each umbel; pedicels very short (at most 1.5 mm.) and pilose, or obsolete; involucre of 2 broadly ovate, membranous-margined bracts 1.5–5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals roundish to broadly obovate, ± 1 mm., greenish to purplish red, often with minute whitish hairs on the central dorsal surface.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit very strongly laterally compressed, oblate-rounded, ± 3–4 mm., glabrous or with fine, rather long white hairs; primary and secondary ribs narrowly prominent, with ± anastomosing veins between; stylopodia low and rounded, finally indistinct; styles ± divergent, ± 0.5–0.75 mm.
Figures
Fig. 3.
Habitat
Most commonly in damp grassland along rivers and by swamps and lakes, sometimes sprawling over rocks, occasionally aquatic or in deep mud; also found in forest clearings, and at higher levels among Sphagnum; near sea-level to 3480 m.
Distribution
K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 widely distributed in the tropical regions of the world, extending into some subtropical regions

[FWTA]

Umbelliferae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A perennial creeping plant, rooting at the nodes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers purplish
Ecology
In damp grassy places.

[FZ]

Umbelliferae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology General Habit
Creeping herb, rooting at the nodes, but sometimes forming a large taproot.
Morphology Stem
Stem terete, with shallow grooves, sometimes purplish.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves solitary or in groups of up to 5, pubescent or glabrous; lamina 1–7 cm. wide, reniform to almost orbicular, with a deep basal sinus; margin crenate, glabrous or with scattered hairs on upper part of petiole (petiole sometimes densely hairy when young).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels subcapitate; peduncles 1·5–5 cm. long, glabrous or pubescent, usually much shorter than the subtending petiole.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 2–8, hermaphrodite, with an involucre of 2 ovate, membranous, persistent bracts. Pedicels slender or obsolete; petals dark crimson to greenish-white, orbicular with a slender inflexed point. Calyx teeth and stylopodium obsolete; styles short, ± divergent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 3·5× 3 mm., orbicular to ellipsoid, brown at maturity, deeply constricted at the commissure and flattened laterally, primary ribs prominent when ripe, secondary ribs ± evident; carpophore entire.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 1500 - 2610 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

Native to:

Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chatham Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marshall Is., Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Uganda, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Ascension, Chagos Archipelago, Colombia, Cook Is., Florida, Hawaii, Marquesas, Niue, Norfolk Is., Oregon, Seychelles, Society Is., St.Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Tubuai Is.

Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Nov 1, 2009 Jinaun [9], Borneo K000639102
Jul 1, 2007 Verheijen [3542], Lesser Sunda Is. K000224482
Jul 1, 2007 Othman [55069], Sarawak K000224483
Jul 1, 2007 Awa [47491], Sarawak K000224484
Jul 1, 2007 Othman [55040], Sarawak K000224485
Jul 1, 2007 Kandau Jenang [62445], Sarawak K000224486
Jul 1, 2007 Awa [47428], Sarawak K000224487
Jul 1, 2007 Conklin [2555], Philippines K000224488
Jul 1, 2007 Raynal [16872], Irian Jaya K000224489
Jul 1, 2007 Savinierre, de la E. [63], Indonesia K000224481
Sep 24, 2005 Giulietti, A.M. [1897], Bahia K000036510
May 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [7244], Cameroon K000008490
May 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [1845], Cameroon K000008491
May 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [9453], Cameroon K000008489
Dec 1, 2000 Munyenyembe, P. [899], Cameroon K000338805
Dec 1, 2000 Cheek, M. [8542], Cameroon K000338804
Mar 11, 2000 Colenso, J.W. [s.n.], New Zealand K000686115
Mar 1, 1956 Coombe, D.E. [Dec 200], Cameroon K000051044
Jan 1, 1954 Maitland, T.D. [218], Cameroon K000051041
Jacob de Cordemoy [62] K000310278
Gunn, R. [876], Tasmania K000686108
Gunn, R. [876], Tasmania K000686109
Daramola, B. O. [FHI 41091], Cameroon K000051042
Irwin, H.S. [2217], Brazil K001130411
Irwin, H.S. [30563], Brazil K001130414
Skvortzov, B. [207], Brazil K001130412
von Tuerckheim, H. [426], Guatemala K001134188
Blechez [H3290], Brazil K001130415
Thomas, D.W. [5024], Cameroon K000051043
s.coll. [876], Tasmania K000686110
Bleher [576/65], Brazil K001130416
Bernoulli [2736], Guatemala K001134189
Moura, O.T. [567], Brazil K001130410
Irwin, H.S. [12048], Brazil K001130409
Reitz [13107], Brazil K001130413
Gentley, P.H. [1094], Belize K001134190
Drummond, J. [104], Western Australia Neosciadium glochidiatum K000686117
Drummond, J. [247], Western Australia Neosciadium glochidiatum K000686118
Drummond, J. [105], Western Australia Neosciadium glochidiatum K000686116
Jan 1, 1924 Schlechter, F.R.R. [2854], South Africa Centella coriacea K000310280 paratype
Scott Elliot, G.F. [1973], Madagascar Centella tussilaginifolia K000310274
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 560], Myanmar Hydrocotyle asiatica K001111278 Unknown type material
s.coll. [Cat. no. 560] Hydrocotyle asiatica K001111279 Unknown type material
s.coll. [Cat. no. 560] Hydrocotyle asiatica K001111282 Unknown type material
s.coll. [Cat. no. 560] Hydrocotyle asiatica K001111277 Unknown type material
s.coll. [Cat. no. 560], India Hydrocotyle asiatica K001111280 Unknown type material
s.coll. [Cat. no. 560], India Hydrocotyle asiatica K001111281 Unknown type material
Jack, W. [Cat. no. 560], Malaysia Hydrocotyle asiatica K001111276 Unknown type material

First published in C.F.P.von Martius & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Bras. 11(1): 287 (1879)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Allan, H.A. (1961). Flora of New Zealand 1: 1-1085. Botany division, D.S.I.R., Christchurch.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hedge, I.C., Lamond, J.M. & Rechinger, K.H. (1987). Flora Iranica 162: 1-555. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Lorence, D.H. & Wagnwe, W.L. (2020). Flora of the Marquesas Islands 2: 413-1135. National Tropical Botanic Garden, Smithsonian, DRPF.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Nasir, E. (1972). Flora of West Pakistan 20: 1-169.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Singh, M. & Ali, S.J. (2008). A study on aquatic Angiosperms of district Mau (East U.P.) Journal of East African Natural History 32: 877-890.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspectus Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Townsend, C.C. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Umbelliferae: 1-127.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (ed.) (1948-1954). Flora Malesiana 4: 1-631. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Van Wyk, B.-E., Tilney, P.M. & Magee, A.R. (2013). African Apiaceae: a synopsis of the Apiaceae/Umbelliferae of Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: 1- 317. Briza Academic Books, Pretoria.
  • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2005). Flora of China 14: 1-581. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Berhaut Fl. Sen. 179.
  • Chev. Bot. 303.
  • F.W.T.A., ed. 1, 1: 522
  • Hydrocotyle asiatica Linn. (1753) —F.T.A. 3: 6
  • in Mart. Fl. Bras. 11, 1: 287, t. 78, fig 1: (1878)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • ( 2021-continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Barua, K.N. & Khatry, P.K. (2009). Alien forest weeds in upper Brahmaputra valler and hill zones of Assam Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 414-422.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Florence, J. & Hallé, N. (1986). Suite du catalogue des plantes a fleurs et Fougères des iles Australes Rapa: 151-158. Direction des centres d'expérimentations nucléaires. Service mixte de contrôle biologique.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Lorence, D.H. & Wagnwe, W.L. (2020). Flora of the Marquesas Islands 2: 413-1135. National Tropical Botanic Garden, Smithsonian, DRPF.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Nasir, E. (1972). Flora of West Pakistan 20: 1-169.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (ed.) (1948-1954). Flora Malesiana 4: 1-631. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2005). Flora of China 14: 1-581. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 351 (1974).
  • Cannon in Consp. Fl. Angol. 4: 339 (1970).
  • Cannon in Flora Zambesiaca 4: 562 (1978).
  • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 637 (1959).
  • E. Lind & A. Tallantire, Some Common Flowering Plants of Uganda p. 100 (1962).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 360 (1952).
  • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 1: 697 (1948).
  • Urb. in Mart., Fl. Bras. 11(1): 287, t. 78/1 (1879).

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0