1. Family: Bromeliaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Ananas Mill.
      1. Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.

        Ananas comosus is a seedless cultigen (a plant that has been altered by humans through a process of selective breeding). Because it has been in cultivation for thousands of years, its exact origins are unknown.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description

    Ananas comosus is a seedless cultigen (a plant that has been altered by humans through a process of selective breeding). Because it has been in cultivation for thousands of years, its exact origins are unknown.

    It is thought to be derived from bird-pollinated wild plants with seeds in Central and South America, perhaps from wild relative Ananas ananassoides, but further research is needed to confirm this. The Tupi-Guarani Indians of South America have been credited with its domestication, although this is in some dispute.

    In the horticultural trade, many species and hybrids of Bromeliaceae are sold as indoor ornamentals, but pineapple is the only economically important plant in Bromeliaceae. The family also includes ‘air plants’ (epiphytes) such as Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides) and blushing bride (Tillandsia ionantha). There are nine accepted species of Ananas.

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Ananas comosus is a cultigen from southeastern and southern Brazil and Paraguay, the wild relatives of which are unknown.

    Description

    Overview: Tropical herbaceous perennial, 1–2 m tall and wide with leaves spirally arranged.

    Stem: Circular in cross-section, up to 50 cm long and 8 cm wide, club-shaped.

    Leaves: Deep green to grey-green to red, pungent, 30–50 in dense rosettes. Individual leaves up to 1 m long by 4 cm wide with spiny margins.

    Flowers: Borne on an inflorescence (flowering structure) 20–30 cm long, held on a scape (stalk) up to 50 cm long and subtended by bracts. Small purple or red flowers are each accompanied by a single red, yellowish or green, fleshy bract. Each flower is composed of three sepals, three petals, six stamens and a three-chambered ovary.

    Fruits: A seedless, juicy syncarp (multiple fruit, produced by fusion of fruits from 100–200 flowers) up to 30 cm long, crowned with 20–30 leafy bracts. The tough, waxy rind, made up of hexagonal units, is dark-green, yellow, orange-yellow or reddish when the fruit is ripe. The flesh ranges from nearly white to yellow.

    Seeds: Normally only traces of undeveloped seeds are present.

    Offshoots, known as ‘slips’, emerge from the stem around the base of the fruit and ‘stem shoots’ grow in the axils of the leaves. ‘Ground shoots’ or ‘suckers’ are shoots arising from the base of the plant at ground level.

    Uses Food and drink

    Pineapple was (and still is) an important part of the diet of native Americans in the lowland tropics. The names nanas and ananas were used throughout South America and the Caribbean. Native Americans ate the fresh fruit and also used it to prepare alcoholic beverages such as pineapple wine, chicha and guarapo .

    Today, pineapple is the world’s third most important cultivated tropical fruit after bananas and citrus. It is grown in frost-free areas around the world for its fruits, which are highly regarded for their distinctive flavour and sweet flesh and juice. Pineapple is an excellent source of vitamins A and C and potassium.

    About 30 cultivars are grown commercially and these are grouped into four main classes for convenience in trade: ‘Smooth Cayenne’, ‘Red Spanish’, ‘Queen’ and ‘Pernambuco’.

    Seventy per cent of the pineapples produced globally are consumed as fresh fruit in the country of origin. Some of the largest producers of pineapple are Thailand, the Philippines, Brazil, China and India. Pineapple is also an important crop in Hawaii, Malaysia and Kenya.

    Major pineapple products in global trade are canned slices and chunks, crush, juice and fresh fruit. Cut pineapple is eaten alone or used in desserts, salads, fruit cocktail mixes and cooked meat dishes. Pineapple juice is used in beverages - most famously the mixture of pineapple juice, rum and coconut cream known as piña colada.

    Medicine

    Native Americans have used pineapple medicinally against parasitic worms and amoebic parasites, to treat stomach complaints and to induce abortion and stimulate menstrual flow. Most of these uses relate to the presence of the enzyme bromelain, which breaks down protein.

    Bromelain extracted from pineapple has been used as a nutraceutical (food product thought to provide heath benefits). It has been shown to interfere with the growth of malignant cells, to inhibit clotting, reduce inflammation and help remove damaged tissue from wounds.

    Many people react to fresh pineapple with an outbreak of a skin rash or hives. External exposure to juice alone can also cause this reaction in some people. Those who react this way should reduce intake of uncooked fruit or eat only canned fruit.

    Fibres

    Native Americans used the fibres contained in pineapple leaves and domesticated a smooth-leaved form ( curagua ) with a higher yield of long, strong fibres. These were used to make fishing nets and lines, hammocks and loincloths.

    Pineapple fibre is creamy-white with a silky shine and is delicate in texture. It is still used in Brazil and the Philippines, where it is known as piña cloth. It is exported from the Philippines and Taiwan to Spain where it is used for fine embroidery.

    Pineapple fibre easily takes and retains dyes and is strong and soft and has been used to make smooth, thin, pliable paper. It is used by cottage industries rather than on a commercial scale, partly because the fibre is difficult to extract and also because the cultivars grown for food do not have leaves suitable for fibre extraction.

    Ornamental

    Pineapple is cultivated as an ornamental, serving as a stately foliage plant or as a curiosity (with the tempting promise of edible produce). The variegated form is popular as an ornamental.

    It was considered fashionable to grow pineapple in Great Britain in the early 1700s, and it served as the model for much garden statuary. An impressive example of pineapple-inspired architecture can be seen at Dunmore Park in Scotland. Built in 1761 by John Murray, the 4th Earl of Dunmore, this folly with its pineapple-shaped cupola originally contained a hothouse but is now maintained as holiday accommodation by The Landmark Trust.

    In temperate regions pineapple should be grown in a glasshouse or conservatory, with a minimum temperature of 13–15°C, high humidity and strong sunlight. Plants will not normally produce fruit until they are three years old.

    Other uses

    Bromelain (an enzyme that breaks down protein) extracted from pineapple has been used as a meat-tenderiser.

    By-products of pineapple processing (leaves, bracts, fruit trimmings) have been used in animal feeds, although they are often of low nutritional value.

    Pineapple history

    Pineapple originated in the lowlands of South America. It was widely used by Native Americans for food, alcoholic beverages and medicinal purposes. By the 15th century, it was distributed throughout most of tropical America, and all forms in cultivation were nearly or completely seedless.

    Pineapples were first seen by Europeans when the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus landed on the island of Guadeloupe during his second voyage in 1493. Columbus is alleged to have named the fruit, calling it the ‘pine of the Indies’ due to its resemblance to a pine cone. The name  Ananas  derives from  nana , a Tupi Indian term for the fruit.

    The value of this fruit was soon recognised, and before the end of the 16th century pineapple cultivation had spread across much of the tropical world, including Africa, India, China, Java and the Philippines. In the late 18th century, pineapple was introduced to Hawaii, where it has become the state’s most important fruit crop.

    Pineapple is now considered to be a weed in some countries.

    Cultivation

    Pineapple is propagated vegetatively by rooting the coma (crown of bracts at the top of the fruit) or from side shoots produced at the base of the growth.

    Some important cultivars are:

    • ‘Hawaiian King ‘ – large, smooth-leaved• ‘Honey Gold’ – large fruit up to 7 kg• ‘Smooth Cayenne’ – spineless, grown in Hawaii• ‘Queen’ – spiny, used in Malaysia and Kenya• ‘Red Spanish’ – used in the West Indies• ‘Porteanus’ – leaves with central yellow stripe• ‘Variegatus’ – leaves variegated with longitudinal yellow stripes, sometimes marked red

    This species at Kew

    Pineapple can be seen growing at the northern end of Kew’s Princess of Wales Conservatory, in the moist tropics zone.

    Pineapple fibre, thread and cloth and an evening bag and a shirt made from it are held in Kew’s Economic Botany Collection. Specimens of pineapple fruit, leaves and oil are also held in the collection and are available to researchers by appointment.

    Distribution
    Brazil
    Ecology
    Unknown.
    Conservation
    Widespread in cultivation.
    Hazards

    Consumption of unripe fruit can cause irritation to the throat and act as a strong purgative; some people have a strong skin reaction (hives) after consumption of fresh pineapple.

    [UPPd]
    Endocrine System Disorders
    Para aliviar muina se prepara un jarabe con el cocimiento de las hojas, la raíz, cáscara de limón agrio, canela, lima rayada, nabo, hoja de higuera, mecate de maguey, semillas cimarronas, azúcar y alcohol. Roots and leaves - Biblioteca digital de la medic
    Pain
    Se usa la planta para aliviar dolores en general. Unspecified plant parts - Biblioteca digital de la medicina tradicional mexicana.
    Digestive System Disorders
    Se usa para expulsar lombrices. Unspecified plant parts - Biblioteca digital de la medicina tradicional mexicana. Para aliviar la diarrea, se prepara un jarabe con el cocimiento de las hojas, la raíz, cáscara de limón agrio, canela, lima rayada, nabo, hoja de higuera, mecate de maguey, semillas cimarronas, azúcar y alcohol. Roots and leaves - Biblioteca digital de la Para aliviar los cólicos de enojo (en Puebla), se prepara un jarabe con el cocimiento de las hojas, la raíz, cáscara de limón agrio, canela, lima rayada, nabo, hoja de higuera, mecate de maguey, semillas cimarronas, azúcar y alcohol. Roots and leaves - Bi Para aliviar la bilis, se prepara un jarabe con el cocimiento de las hojas, la raíz, cáscara de limón agrio, canela, lima rayada, nabo, hoja de higuera, mecate de maguey, semillas cimarronas, azúcar y alcohol. Roots and leaves - Biblioteca digital de la m
    [KSP]
    Use
    Food and drink, medicine, textiles.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    Argentina Northeast, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela

    Introduced Into:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Cook Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Galápagos, Gambia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Malaya, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Samoa, Senegal, Society Is., Taiwan, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Zaïre

    Common Names

    English
    Pineapple

    Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Interpr. Herb. Amboin.: 133 (1917)

    Accepted in:

    • [1] (2016) Phytotaxa 250: 1-431
    • [2] Sykes, W.R. (2016) Flora of the Cook Islands . National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii
    • [3] (2014) Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial 11: 1-416. Consejo superior de investigaciones científicas, Real jardín botánico, Madrid
    • [4] (2014) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78
    • [5] Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013) Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh , Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh
    • [6] (2012) Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192
    • [7] (2011) Bothalia 41: 41-82
    • [11] (2010) Flora Zambesiaca 13(2): 1-83. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    • [12] (2009) Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517
    • [14] (2008) Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria
    • [15] Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008) Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela . Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela
    • [17] Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008) Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas . SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras
    • [18] (2006) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141
    • [19] (2006) Selbyana 27: 107-146
    • [20] (2005) Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415
    • [21] (2005) Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116
    • [22] Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005) Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo , ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville
    • [26] Govaerts, R. (1995) World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne
    • [28] Jones, M. (1991) A checklist of Gambian plants . Michael Jones, The Gambia College
    • [31] Smith, A.C. (1979) Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 1: 1-495. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai
    • [32] Boulvert, Y. (1977) Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui

    Literature

    • [8] Paull, R. E. & Duarte, O. (2011). Tropical Fruits, Volume 1, 2nd Edition. CABI, Wallingford, UK.
    • [9] d’Eeckenbrugge, G. C., Sanewski, G. M., Smith, M. K., Duval, M. & Leal, F. (2011). Chapter 2: Ananas. In: Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources, Tropical and Subtropical Fruits, ed. C. Kole, pp. 21–41, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
    • [10] (2010) Boletim do Museu de Biologia Mello Leitão 27: 21-53
    • [13] (2008) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500
    • [16] Mabberley, D. J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-book: a Portable Dictionary of Plants, their Classification and Uses, 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
    • [23] Bartholomew, D. P., Paull, R. E. & Rohrbach, K. G. (eds) (2003). The Pineapple: Botany, Production and Uses. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.
    • [24] Kiple, K. F. & Ornelas, K. C. (eds) (2000). The Cambridge World History of Food, Volume 2. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
    • [25] Huxley, A., Griffiths, M. & Levy, M. (eds) (1999). The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. Volume 1 (A to C). Macmillan Reference, London
    • [27] (1991) Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108
    • [29] Berhaut, J. (1988) Flore illustrée du Sénégal 9: 1-522. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar
    • [30] Morton, J. (1987). Fruits of Warm Climates. Florida Flair Books, Boynton Beach, USA.
    • [33] (1935) Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221
    • [34] Britton, N. (1918) Flora of Bermuda . Charles Scribner's Sons, New York

    Sources

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (2017). Published on the internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp
    [A] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [B] © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [C]
    [D] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Library Art and Archives
    [E] Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    [F] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    [G] Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Project MGU - Useful Plants Project (UPP) database
    [H]