1. Family: Burseraceae Kunth
    1. Genus: Commiphora Jacq.
      1. Commiphora samharensis Schweinf.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is NE. Tropical Africa to NE. Uganda and NE. Tanzania.

    [FTEA]

    Burseraceae, J.B. Gillett. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

    Habit
    Small spiny glabrous trees up to 6(–9) m. tall; trunk yellowish, pale brown or grey, the outer bark peeling in very small curved flakes; twigs dark purplish, usually rather zigzag; slash smooth, with pink or red layers; exudate clear, volatile, strongly resin-scented, not producing a hard gum-resin.
    Leaves
    Leaves all 3-foliolate; petiole as long, or almost as long, as the terminal leaflet, which is oblate, orbicular or elliptic, usually acuminate at the apex and abruptly constricted below the centre into a very narrow, petiolule-like, attenuate base, 10–100(–120) mm. long, 10–70 mm. wide; lateral leaflets 1/4–4/5 as large as the terminal with much shorter attenuate bases; margins entire or crenate-serrate.
    Flowers
    Flowers usually precocious, dark red, solitary or clustered at the tips of spurs; ♂ in 2–9-flowered cymes up to 12 mm. long, with bracts up to 0.5 mm. long. Female flowers in 1–2-flowered cymes; peduncle 1–4(–10) mm.; pedicel 1–5(–8) mm. long; calyx often caducous but sometimes persistent and then forming a loose collar around the fruiting pedicel; petals 4 mm. long; sterile stamens ± 1 mm. long; occasionally hermaphrodite flowers with functional stamens may be produced on ♀ trees. Male flowers:calyx-tube ± 3 mm., with triangular lobes ± 1 mm. long; petals linear, 5–6 mm. long, 1 mm. wide; filaments 4 and 2.5 mm., anthers 1.0 and 0.5 mm. long.
    Male
    Male flowers:calyx-tube ± 3 mm., with triangular lobes ± 1 mm. long; petals linear, 5–6 mm. long, 1 mm. wide; filaments 4 and 2.5 mm., anthers 1.0 and 0.5 mm. long.
    Female
    Female flowers in 1–2-flowered cymes; peduncle 1–4(–10) mm.; pedicel 1–5(–8) mm. long; calyx often caducous but sometimes persistent and then forming a loose collar around the fruiting pedicel; petals 4 mm. long; sterile stamens ± 1 mm. long; occasionally hermaphrodite flowers with functional stamens may be produced on ♀ trees.
    Fruits
    Fruit stalk 2–5(–13) mm. long; drupe obliquely obovoid, rounded or truncate apically, 8–10 × 7 × (2–3.5 + 3.5) mm.; pericarp 2-valved; pseudaril covering 3/4 or the whole of the stone whose sterile locule is markedly humped distally and which has very thick walls.
    [FTEA]

    Burseraceae, J.B. Gillett. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

    Habit
    Small spiny trees, glabrous throughout except for hairs at the edge of bracts; trunk well defined, stout, ± 1 m. long; branches drooping to ground-level at their tips; outer bark yellowish, papery, flaking from the greenish under-bark; slash whitish; exudate gummy, not strongly scented; twigs dark grey, slightly zigzag; spines sparse, 10–30 mm. long, the longer twigs, as it seems, not spine-tipped.
    Leaves
    Leaves all 3-foliolate; petiole 10–30 mm. long, ± as long as the terminal leaflet which is cuneate-obovate, somewhat attenuate at the base, apically truncate, about as broad as long, with 3–5 principal lateral veins and 7–12 well-defined sharp teeth, all above the centre of the leaflet, on each side; lateral leaflets ± half as large as the terminal, sessile, suborbicular, broadly cuneate at the base, with 4–6 teeth on each side.
    Male
    Male flowers precocious in dense clusters, each enveloped at the base by a pair of brown bracts united for half their length to form a bilobed cup ± 2.5 mm. long to the tips of the lobes and 2.5 mm. across; pedicels 0.5 mm. long; receptacle cupular, ± 1 mm. deep, 1.7 mm. across; calyx-tube 1.3 mm. long; lobes triangular, 1.2 mm. long; petals inserted with the stamens on the rim of the receptacle, linear, folded, expanded and recurved near the tip, 5.5 mm. long; filaments 3.5 and 2 mm., anthers apiculate, 1.0 and 0.6 mm. long.
    Flowers
    Female flowers unknown. Male flowers precocious in dense clusters, each enveloped at the base by a pair of brown bracts united for half their length to form a bilobed cup ± 2.5 mm. long to the tips of the lobes and 2.5 mm. across; pedicels 0.5 mm. long; receptacle cupular, ± 1 mm. deep, 1.7 mm. across; calyx-tube 1.3 mm. long; lobes triangular, 1.2 mm. long; petals inserted with the stamens on the rim of the receptacle, linear, folded, expanded and recurved near the tip, 5.5 mm. long; filaments 3.5 and 2 mm., anthers apiculate, 1.0 and 0.6 mm. long.
    Female
    Female flowers unknown.
    Fruits
    Fruit sessile or on a stalk under 1 mm. long clasped at the base, by the persistent calyx, asymmetrically ellipsoid, pointed, narrowed at the base, 11–12 × 7 × (2–3 + 4.5–5) mm.; pericarp 2-valved, 1 mm. thick; pseudaril a thin layer completely covering the carunculate stone, which is bluntly pointed and measures 7–9 × 5 × (0.8–1.4 + 3.8–4) mm.; sterile locule nearly flat, slightly convex, neither ridged nor humped; germination shield ill defined.
    Figures
    Fig. 8/8,9, p.52.
    Habitat
    Acacia, Commiphora open woodland or bushland on sloping ground; 450–850 m.; rainfall 250–350 mm.
    Distribution
    K1 not known elsewhere

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda

    Commiphora samharensis Schweinf. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 17, 1985 Gillett, J.B. [12558], Kenya Commiphora danduensis K000353505 holotype
    Jul 17, 1985 Gillett, J.B. [12558], Kenya Commiphora danduensis K000353506 holotype
    Jul 17, 1985 Gillett, J.B. [12558], Kenya Commiphora danduensis K000353509
    Jul 17, 1985 Gillett, J.B. [12558], Kenya Commiphora danduensis K000353508 holotype
    Gillett, J.B. [12558/A], Kenya Commiphora danduensis 8926.000
    Gillett, J.B. [12558], Kenya Commiphora danduensis K000353507 holotype
    Friis, I. [2726], Ethiopia Commiphora samharensis subsp. terebinthina K000199678 Unknown type material

    First published in Bull. Herb. Boissier 7(App. 2): 290 (1899)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Gillett, J.B. (1991). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Burseraceae: 1-94.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Vollesen in Fl. Eth. 3: 453 (1990).
    • Engl. in A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas3(1): 788, fig. 371M–Mb (1915).
    • Engl. in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 48: 459, 477, fig. 2 M–Mb (1915)
    • Schweinf. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 7, App. 2: 290 (1899).
    • Schweinf. in A. Engler & K. Prantl, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien III, 4: 253 (1896), nomen,

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0