1. Family: Amaranthaceae Juss.
    1. Pupalia Juss.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Africa and Asia-Temperate..

    [FTEA]

    Amaranthaceae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs or subshrubs with entire opposite leaves
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a spiciform bracteate thyrse terminal on the stem and branches, each bract subtending a single hermaphrodite flower on each side of which is set a bracteolate modified flower consisting of a number of sharply hooked spines, or, more commonly, each bract containing a hermaphrodite flower subtended by 2 or more such triads each contained within a large bracteole
    Spines
    Spines of modified flowers at first very small, rapidly accrescent, finally disposed in 3 or occasionally more stalked clusters of 5–20 spines in 1–3 ranks, the clusters stellately or occasionally dendroidly set on a common peduncle, subequalling to much exceeding the perianth and serving as a means of distributing the fruit; bracts persistent, finally ± deflexed; entire partial inflorescences falling intact in fruit
    Perianth
    Perianth-segments 5
    Stamens
    Stamens 5; filaments delicate to rather solid, fused at the extreme base on to a fleshy lobed disk-like cup into which the base of the ovary is narrowed; pseudostaminodes absent; anthers bilocular
    Pistil
    Ovary with a single pendulous ovule; style slender; stigma capitate
    Fruits
    Fruit a thin-walled capsule, irregularly ruptured below the firm apex by the developing seed
    Seeds
    Seed oblong-ovoid or ovoid, slightly compressed; endosperm copious.
    [FZ]

    Amaranthaceae, C. C. Townsend. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs or subshrubs with entire, opposite leaves.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a spiciform bracteate thyrse terminal on the stem and branches, each bract subtending a single hermaphrodite flower on each side of which is set a bracteolate modified flower consisting of a number of sharply hooked spines, or, more commonly, each bract containing a hermaphrodite flower sub tended by two or more such triads each contained with a large bracteole.
    Spines
    Spines of modified flowers at first very small, rapidly accrescent, finally disposed in 3 or occasionally more stalked clusters of 5–20 spines in 1–3 ranks, the clusters stellately or occasionally dendroidly set on a common stalk, subequalling to much exceeding the perianth and serving as a means of distributing the fruit.
    Bracts
    Bracts persistent, finally more or less deflexed, entire partial inflorescences falling intact in fruit.
    Perianth
    Perianth segments 5.
    Androecium
    Stamens 5, the filaments delicate to rather solid, fused at the extreme base on to a fleshy, lobed, disk-like cup into which the base of the ovary is narrowed; pseudostaminodes absent; anthers bilocular.
    Style
    Style slender, stigma capitate.
    Ovary
    Ovary with a single, pendulous ovule.
    Fruits
    Fruit a thin-walled capsule irregularly ruptured below the firm apex by the developing seed.
    Seeds
    Seed oblong-ovoid or ovoid, slightly compressed. Endosperm copious.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, New Guinea, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Taiwan

    Pupalia Juss. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 2: 132 (1803)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 47.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Ann. Mus. Nation. Hist. Nat. Paris 2: 132 (1803) nomen cons.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • C.C. Townsend in K.B. 34: 131–142 (1979), nom. conserv.
    • in Ann. Bus. Hist. Nat. Paris 2: 132 (1803)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/