1. Family: Celastraceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Euonymus L.
      1. Euonymus latifolius (L.) Mill.

        Philip Miller (1691-1771), head gardener at the Chelsea Physic Garden for nearly 50 years, described Euonymus latifolius in the 8th edition of his famous The Gardeners Dictionary (1768). It is particularly valued for the gorgeous red colour of its fruit and leaves in autumn, attributes that led to an Award of Merit from the Royal Horticultural Society in 1916.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    The large-leaved spindle is a shrub with scarlet fruits and brilliant red leaves in autumn.

    Philip Miller (1691-1771), head gardener at the Chelsea Physic Garden for nearly 50 years, described Euonymus latifolius in the 8th edition of his famous The Gardeners Dictionary (1768). It is particularly valued for the gorgeous red colour of its fruit and leaves in autumn, attributes that led to an Award of Merit from the Royal Horticultural Society in 1916.

    Peter Davis, editor of the Flora of Turkey, described a trip to southwestern Anatolia, where he ‘climbed to some shady rocks in the Abies [fir] forest and saw the very lovely sight of Euonymus latifolius in ripe fruit.’ The fruits ‘trembled above one on stalks as long as a cherry’s. It should certainly be planted where one can look up at its laden branches'.

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Euonymus latifolius is found from southern France and Spain, to Turkey, the Caucasus, the Crimea, northern Iraq and northwest Iran and in the south in Morocco and Algeria. It has been grown in British gardens since around 1730 and has become naturalised in parts of the country as a result of birds distributing seeds.

    Description

    Euonymus latifolius is a deciduous shrub up to 6 m, with graceful, arching branches, and oblong leaves 8–16 cm long. The green flowers are usually five-petalled and borne in groups on slender stems from May to June. These are followed in September to October by bright red fruits with four or five winged lobes, measuring 20 mm across and containing orange seeds

    Threats and conservation

    Euonymus latifolius is widespread, but not common in the wild.

    Cultivation

    Large-leaved spindle is grown as an ornamental.

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    The Millennium Seed Bank partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in Kew's seed bank vault at Wakehurst.

    Description of seeds: Average 1,000 seed weight = 26.5 g

    Number of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank: One

    Composition values: Average oil content is 47.9% and average protein content is 20.8%

    This species at Kew

    Large-leaved spindle can be seen growing at Kew Gardens in the Arboretum and near Brentford Gate. It can also be found at Wakehurst.

    Pressed and dried specimens of Euonymus latifolius are held in Kew’s Herbarium, where they are available to researchers from around the world, by appointment. The details of some of these specimens, including images, can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue.

    Distribution
    France, Spain, Turkey
    Ecology
    On hillsides in scrub, among bracken and on wooded cliffs
    Conservation
    Not evaluated according to IUCN Red List criteria.
    Hazards

    Seeds probably contain the same, or similar, range of toxic substances as those found in common spindle (E. europaeus), which is poisonous.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    Albania, Algeria, Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Greece, Iran, Italy, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Morocco, Romania, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia

    Introduced Into:

    Belgium

    Common Names

    English
    Large-leaved spindle

    Euonymus latifolius (L.) Mill. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Ruprecht [s.n.], Georgia K000669143

    First published in Gard. Dict. ed. 8: n.º 2 (1768)

    Accepted in:

    • [1] (2011) Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève
    • [4] (2004) Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines , ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique
    • [7] Govaerts, R. (2001) World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919

    Literature

    • [2] The Plant List (2010). Euonymus latifolius.
    • [3] Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2008). Seed Information Database (SID). Version 7.1.
    • [5] Frohne, D. & Pfänder, H.J. (2004). Poisonous Plants: A Handbook for Doctors, Pharmacists, Toxicologists, Biologists and Veterinarians. 2nd Edition. Manson Publishing, London.
    • [6] Preston, C.D., Pearman, D.A. & Dines, T.D. (2002). New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora: An Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. CD-ROM. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    • [8] Phillips, R. & Rix, M. (1989). Shrubs. Pan Books, London.
    • [9] Bean, W.J. (1973). Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles. 8th ed. Vol. 2. John Murray, London.
    • [10] Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1967). Flora of Turkey. Vol. 2. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • [11] Blakelock, R.A. (1951). A synopsis of the genus Euonymus. Kew Bulletin 6(2): 210-290.
    • [12] Davis, P.H. (1949). A Journey in South-West Anatolia, part II. J. Roy, Hort. Soc. 74(4): 154-164.

    Sources

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (2017). Published on the internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp
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    Kew Species Profiles
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