1. Family: Celastraceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Euonymus L.
      1. Euonymus latifolius (L.) Mill.

        Philip Miller (1691-1771), head gardener at the Chelsea Physic Garden for nearly 50 years, described Euonymus latifolius in the 8th edition of his famous The Gardeners Dictionary (1768). It is particularly valued for the gorgeous red colour of its fruit and leaves in autumn, attributes that led to an Award of Merit from the Royal Horticultural Society in 1916.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    The large-leaved spindle is a shrub with scarlet fruits and brilliant red leaves in autumn.

    Philip Miller (1691-1771), head gardener at the Chelsea Physic Garden for nearly 50 years, described Euonymus latifolius in the 8th edition of his famous The Gardeners Dictionary (1768). It is particularly valued for the gorgeous red colour of its fruit and leaves in autumn, attributes that led to an Award of Merit from the Royal Horticultural Society in 1916.

    Peter Davis, editor of the Flora of Turkey, described a trip to southwestern Anatolia, where he ‘climbed to some shady rocks in the Abies [fir] forest and saw the very lovely sight of Euonymus latifolius in ripe fruit.’ The fruits ‘trembled above one on stalks as long as a cherry’s. It should certainly be planted where one can look up at its laden branches'.

    Species Profile

    Geography and distribution

    Euonymus latifolius is found from southern France and Spain, to Turkey, the Caucasus, the Crimea, northern Iraq and northwest Iran and in the south in Morocco and Algeria. It has been grown in British gardens since around 1730 and has become naturalised in parts of the country as a result of birds distributing seeds.

    Description

    Euonymus latifolius is a deciduous shrub up to 6 m, with graceful, arching branches, and oblong leaves 8–16 cm long. The green flowers are usually five-petalled and borne in groups on slender stems from May to June. These are followed in September to October by bright red fruits with four or five winged lobes, measuring 20 mm across and containing orange seeds

    Illustration from Curtis's Botanical Magazine

    Curtis’s Botanical Magazine (Editor: Martyn Rix) provides an international forum of particular interest to botanists and horticulturists, plant ecologists and those with a special interest in botanical illustration.

    Now well over two hundred years old, the Magazineis the longest running botanical periodical featuring colour illustrations of plants. Each four-part volume contains 24 plant portraits reproduced from watercolour originals by leading international botanical artists. Detailed but accessible articles combine horticultural and botanical information, history, conservation and economic uses of the plants described.

    Published for the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew by Wiley-Blackwell Publishing.

    Find out more about Curtis’s Botanical Magazine

    Threats and conservation

    Euonymus latifolius is widespread, but not common in the wild.

    Cultivation

    Large-leaved spindle is grown as an ornamental.

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    The Millennium Seed Bank partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in Kew's seed bank vault at Wakehurst.

    Description of seeds:Average 1,000 seed weight = 26.5 gNumber of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank:OneComposition values:Average oil content is 47.9% and average protein content is 20.8%

    This species at Kew

    Large-leaved spindle can be seen growing at Kew Gardens in the Arboretum and near Brentford Gate. It can also be found at Wakehurst.

    Pressed and dried specimens of Euonymus latifolius are held in Kew’s Herbarium, where they are available to researchers from around the world, by appointment. The details of some of these specimens, including images, can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue.

    View details and images of specimens

    Distribution
    France, Spain, Turkey
    Ecology
    On hillsides in scrub, among bracken and on wooded cliffs
    Conservation
    Not evaluated according to IUCN Red List criteria.
    Hazards

    Seeds probably contain the same, or similar, range of toxic substances as those found in common spindle ( E. europaeus), which is poisonous.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    Albania, Algeria, Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Greece, Iran, Italy, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Morocco, Romania, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia

    Introduced Into:

    Belgium

    Common Names

    English
    Large-leaved spindle

    Euonymus latifolius (L.) Mill. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Ruprecht [s.n.], Georgia K000669143

    First published in Gard. Dict. ed. 8: n.º 2 (1768)

    Accepted in:

    • [1] (2011) Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.

    Literature

    • [2] The Plant List (2010). Euonymus latifolius.
    • [3] Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2008). Seed Information Database (SID). Version 7.1.
    • [4] (2004) Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines , ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
    • [5] Frohne, D. & Pfänder, H.J. (2004). Poisonous Plants: A Handbook for Doctors, Pharmacists, Toxicologists, Biologists and Veterinarians. 2nd Edition. Manson Publishing, London.
    • [6] Preston, C.D., Pearman, D.A. & Dines, T.D. (2002). New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora: An Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. CD-ROM. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    • [7] Phillips, R. & Rix, M. (1989). Shrubs. Pan Books, London.
    • [8] Bean, W.J. (1973). Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles. 8th ed. Vol. 2. John Murray, London.
    • [9] Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1967). Flora of Turkey. Vol. 2. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • [10] Blakelock, R.A. (1951). A synopsis of the genus Euonymus. Kew Bulletin 6(2): 210-290.
    • [11] Davis, P.H. (1949). A Journey in South-West Anatolia, part II. J. Roy, Hort. Soc. 74(4): 154-164.

    Sources

    International Plant Names Index
    The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
    [A] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [C]

    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [D] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [E] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0