1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Arundinella Raddi

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical to Temp. Asia.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (15), or perennial (35). Rhizomes absent (37), or short (4), or elongated (8). Culms erect (30/34), or geniculately ascending (13/34), or decumbent (3/34); robust (6/14), or slender (8/14); 5-77.68-400 cm long; without nodal roots (3/4), or rooting from lower nodes (4/4). Culm-nodes swollen (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (17/19), or sparse (3/19), or fastigiate (1/19). Ligule an eciliate membrane (22), or a ciliolate membrane (22), or a ciliate membrane (4), or a fringe of hairs (1), or absent (1). Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (41), or lanceolate (13), or oblong (4); membranous (1), or herbaceous (44), or coriaceous (5); stiff (8), or firm (36), or flaccid (5). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (1/5), or conspicuous (4/5). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open (38), or contracted (11), or spiciform (1). Primary panicle branches not whorled (48), or whorled at most nodes (1). Spikelets solitary (17/48), or in pairs (43/48). Fertile spikelets sessile (1), or pedicelled (48); 1 in the cluster (6/36), or 2 in the cluster (36/36). Pedicels filiform (4/4).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (36), or elliptic (4), or ovate (9), or cuneate (2); laterally compressed (48), or dorsally compressed (1); 1.5-4.56-9 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Spikelet callus pilose (1/1). Floret callus glabrous (4/44), or pubescent (15/44), or pilose (13/44), or bearded (12/44).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (36), or elliptic (4), or ovate (9), or cuneate (2); laterally compressed (48), or dorsally compressed (1); 1.5-4.56-9 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Spikelet callus pilose (1/1). Floret callus glabrous (4/44), or pubescent (15/44), or pilose (13/44), or bearded (12/44).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; reaching apex of florets (21), or exceeding apex of florets (28); thinner than fertile lemma; parallel to lemmas (25), or recurved at apex (4), or gaping (22). Lower glume lanceolate (14), or elliptic (11), or ovate (26), or orbicular (2); 0.5-0.7568-1 length of upper glume; membranous (46), or chartaceous (3); 1-keeled; 1 -veined (1), or 3 -veined (39), or 4 -veined (14), or 5 -veined (22), or 6 -veined (1), or 7 -veined (2). Lower glume lateral veins absent (1), or distinct (45), or prominent (3); without ribs (46/48), or ribbed (2/48). Lower glume surface smooth (33), or asperulous (4), or scabrous (14); glabrous (33), or pilose (15), or hispid (3), or setose (2). Lower glume apex obtuse (1/48), or acute (20/48), or acuminate (25/48), or attenuate (2/48), or setaceously attenuate (4/48); muticous (41), or mucronate (2), or awned (7). Upper glume lanceolate (15), or elliptic (15), or oblong (1), or ovate (23), or orbicular (1); 1-2.298-6 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (46), or chartaceous (3); 1-keeled (48/48); 1 -veined (1), or 3 -veined (6), or 4 -veined (4), or 5 -veined (45), or 6 -veined (3), or 7 -veined (4). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (47/48), or ribbed (1/48). Upper glume surface smooth (38), or asperulous (4), or scabrous (9); glabrous (35), or pilose (15), or hispid (4), or setose (2); with simple hairs (5/21), or tubercle-based hairs (16/21). Upper glume apex entire, or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); obtuse (2/48), or acute (12/48), or acuminate (20/48), or attenuate (1/48), or rostrate (1/48), or caudate (15/48).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (47), or barren (17); with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (13), or elliptic (10), or oblong (8), or ovate (23); 1.3 length of fertile lemma; membranous (44), or chartaceous (5); 2 -veined (1), or 3 -veined (25), or 4 -veined (2), or 5 -veined (25), or 6-7 -veined (1); truncate (1/47), or obtuse (13/47), or acute (32/47), or acuminate (2/47); muticous (46), or mucronate (2), or awned (1). Palea of lower sterile floret hyaline (47), or membranous (2). Fertile lemma lanceolate (14), or elliptic (13), or oblong (25), or ovate (12); dorsally compressed (3/3); lanceolate in profile (1/1); chartaceous (4), or coriaceous (45); without keel; 1 -veined (1/38), or 3 -veined (20/38), or 5 -veined (17/38). Lemma lateral veins obscure (41/41). Lemma surface smooth (6), or asperulous (41), or scabrous (1), or papillose (1); glabrous (48), or pubescent (1). Lemma margins flat (1), or involute (48); exposing palea (1), or interlocking with palea keels (48); eciliate (48), or ciliolate (1). Lemma apex entire (19), or dentate (32), or lobed (1); 2 -fid (33/33); incised 0.5 of lemma length; truncate (1/7), or obtuse (4/7), or acuminate (1/7), or setaceously attenuate (1/7); muticous (7), or mucronate (1), or awned (44); 1 -awned (36/44), or 3 -awned (8/44). Principal lemma awn apical (12/45), or from a sinus (33/45); straight (4/45), or geniculate (42/45). Palea 1 length of lemma; membranous (1), or chartaceous (4), or coriaceous (44); 2 -veined (47/47). Palea surface glabrous (47), or pubescent (2). Palea apex dentate (1/1).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (43/43); fleshy (41/41). Anthers 2 (1/47), or 3 (46/47). Stigmas 2 (42/42).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (45/45); ellipsoid (2/3), or oblong (2/3), or ovoid (1/3). Embryo 0.5-0.5667-0.6 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (42/42).
    Distribution
    Africa (2), or Temperate Asia (22), or Tropical Asia (34), or Australasia (4), or North America (3), or South America (3).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Inflorescences
    Panicle open or contracted, often with simple raceme-like primary branches, the spikelets usually paired.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets purplish, disarticulating beneath superior floret.
    Lemma
    Inferior lemma 3–7 nerved. Superior lemma scaberulous, entire to bilobed, with or without a straight or geniculate awn; callus short, rounded; palea wingless, sometimes the margins auriculate below.
    Seeds
    Hilum punctiform.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials, mostly with tough erect culms
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, rigid, flat or rolled, not crinkled on the margins, rarely flaccid and lanceolate; ligule a short scarious rim, usually ciliate along the edge
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence an oblong panicle, open or contracted, the spikelets shortly pedicelled in pairs and ± appressed to the primary branches
    Spikelets
    Spikelets yellowish green or purplish, usually gaping, disarticulating beneath the upper floret, the lower floret ♂ or barren; glumes membranous to chartaceous, 3–5-nerved, the lower acute to mucronate, the upper as long as the spikelet and often ± caudate; lower lemma ovate-elliptic, 3–7-nerved, with a hyaline palea; upper lemma thinly coriaceous, 1–7-nerved, scaberulous all over, entire, emarginate or shortly bilobed, with (rarely without) a straight or geniculate persistent awn, sometimes the lateral lobes also slenderly awned; callus short, rounded; palea wingless, with or without door-like flaps in front, scaberulous, rarely with turgid hairs between the keels; stamens 3
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong, glabrous, the hilum punctiform.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Free State, French Guiana, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Inner Mongolia, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Manchuria, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Arundinella Raddi appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8666], Nepal K001131152
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8666], Nepal K001131153
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8667], Myanmar K001131155
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8667], Myanmar K001131156
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8669], Nepal K001131158
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8671], Myanmar K001131161
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8672], India K001131162
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8669] K001131159
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8663] K001131147
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8663] K001131148
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8664] K001131149
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8665] K001131150
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8665] K001131151
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8666] K001131154
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8668] K001131157
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8670] K001131160

    First published in Agrostogr. Bras.: 36 (1823)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Clayton in Kew Bull. 21: 121 (1967).
    • Conert in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 77: 329 (1967)
    • Phipps in Can. J. Bot. 45: 1047 (1967)
    • Phipps in Kirkia 4: 97 (1964)
    • F.T.A. 10: 1 (1937)
    • Hubbard in Kew Bull. 1936: 319
    • Agrost. Bras. 37, t. 1, fig. 3 (1823)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Agrost. Bras.: 36 (1823).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Phipps in Can. Journ. Bot. 45: 1047 (1967)
    • Conert in E.J. 77: 329 (1957)
    • Hubbard in F.T.A. 10: 1 (1937)
    • Agrost. Bras.: 36 (1823)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0