1. Family: Myrtaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Pimenta Lindl.
      1. Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.

        Allspice is derived from the dried, unripe fruits of Pimenta dioica. It is mainly cultivated in, and exported from, Jamaica. It is also known as pimenta or pimento.

    [KSP]
    General Description
    Said to combine the flavour of cinnamon, nutmeg and cloves, allspice is best known as an ingredient in cakes and baking, but is also used in a variety of sweet and savoury dishes and drinks.

    Allspice is derived from the dried, unripe fruits of Pimenta dioica. It is mainly cultivated in, and exported from, Jamaica. It is also known as pimenta or pimento.

    The first written record of what is probably allspice occurs in an entry for November 1492 in Christopher Columbus’s journal of his first voyage. It describes how he showed pepper ( Piper nigrum), brought from Spain, to indigenous Cubans and asked if they recognised it. The Cubans indicated that it grew locally. However, they were almost certainly referring to Pimenta dioica because true pepper, Piper nigrum, originates from Asia.

    Allspice is an evergreen tree almost exclusively grown in the Western Hemisphere, where the species is native and regenerates easily. It has also been grown in South-East Asia but with less commercial success.

    Species Profile

    Geography and distribution

    Pimenta dioica occurs naturally on hillsides of rainforests in Central America and the Caribbean, and has also been reported from Venezuela.

    Description

    A tropical, evergreen tree, usually 7-10 m tall, but sometimes reaching 20 m, with a smooth, grey bark. Individual trees are functionally dioecious (plants are either male or female) although individual flowers are structurally hermaphrodite (have male and female parts within the same flower). The small, white flowers are held in compound inflorescences and are followed by green berries that turn purple when ripe.

    Uses

    Allspice is used to flavour a variety of dishes, including meat stews, sausages, pickles, cakes and puddings, and is also added to medicines. It is an important component of pimento dram, a Jamaican alcoholic drink, and liqueurs such as Benedictine and Chartreuse. An essential oil is distilled from the berries and leaves and used in soap, perfumes and aromatherapy.

    Allspice is also used in traditional medicine to treat digestive disorders and as a remedy for corns, neuralgia and rheumatism. The oil has antioxidant, bactericidal and fungicidal activity, and is a stimulant and purgative. The wood is used for making walking sticks and umbrella handles.

    This species at Kew

    Pressed and dried specimens of Pimenta dioica are held in Kew’s Herbarium, where they are available to researchers from around the world, by appointment. The details of one of these, including an image, can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue.

    View details and image of specimen

    Specimens of the fruits, leaves and oil, and several walking sticks made from the wood of Pimenta dioicaare held in the Economic Botany Collection in the Sir Joseph Banks Building and are available to researchers by appointment.

    DNA sequencing at Kew

    Sequencing of some standard regions of DNA for Pimenta dioicahas taken place as part of the Phylogeny of Tribe Myrteae (Myrtaceae) project currently underway at Kew. DNA was taken from the allspice plant growing in Kew’s Palm House for this study.

    The project is looking at evolutionary relationships within South American fleshy-fruited Myrtaceae, which are important for studies in the family and in South America and also for a much needed re-classification of the tribe.

    Distribution
    Venezuela
    Ecology
    Hillsides in Central America and the Caribbean.
    Conservation
    Widely cultivated in its natural range; not threatened.
    Hazards

    May cause allergic reactions in hypersensitive individuals.

    [FTEA]
    Habit
    Tree to 20 m with young branchlets glandular and pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves aromatic, oblong-elliptic, elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, 5.5–17(–22) cm long, 2–6.5(–8) cm wide, rounded to obtusely acuminate at the apex, ± glabrous beneath.
    Flowers
    Flowers white, 4-merous, small in many-flowered panicles 5–12 cm long.
    Fruits
    Fruit subglobose, 5–10 mm diameter, densely covered with convex glands.
    Figures
    Fig. 1/3–4, p. 4.
    [KSP]
    Use
    Food flavouring and preservative, perfume, traditional medicine.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    Bahamas, Belize, Cayman Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua

    Introduced Into:

    Bermuda, El Salvador, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Society Is., Southwest Caribbean, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela

    Common Names

    English
    Allspice

    Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    [Linduca] [542], Minas Gerais K000565031 isotype

    First published in Contr. Gray Herb., n.s., 165: 337 (1947)

    Accepted in:

    • [2] (2012) Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102
    • [3] (2012) Englera 29-2: 1-300
    • [4] (2012) Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192
    • [5] Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012) Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies) , ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • [7] (2009) Flora Mesoamericana 4(1): 1-855. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F..
    • [8] Govaerts, R., Sobral, N., Ashton, P., Barrie, F., Holst, B.K., Landrum, L.L., Matsumoto, K., Fernanda Mazine, F., Nic Lughadha, E., Proença, C. & al. (2008) World Checklist of Myrtaceae . Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [9] Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008) Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas . SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • [10] (2007) Makinoa , n.s., 6: 25-62
    • [12] (2003 publ. 2005) Ceiba; a Scientific and Technical Journal Published by Zamorano 44: 105-268
    • [13] Govaerts, R. (2003) World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS . The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [15] Welsh, S.L. (1998) Flora Societensis . E.P.S. Inc. Utah.

    Literature

    • [1] (2016) Phytotaxa 250: 1-431
    • [6] World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (2012). Pimenta dioica. Published on the Internet by the Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [11] Davidson, A. (2006). The Oxford Companion to Food. Second edition, edited by T. Jaine. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    • [14] Sulistiarini, D. (1999). Pimenta dioica (L.) Merrill. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 13. Spices, eds C. C. de Guzman & J. S. Siemonsma, pp. 176-180. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    • [16] Vaughan, J. G. & Geissler, C. (1997). The New Oxford Book of Food Plants: a Guide to the Fruit, Vegetables, Herbs and Spices of the World. London: Oxford University Press.
    • [17] Bown, D. (1995). The Royal Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Herbs & their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London.
    • [18] Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995) Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia . Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • [19] Landrum, L. R. (1986). Campomanesia, Pimenta, Blepharocalyx, Legrandia, Acca, Myrrhinium, and Luma (Myrtaceae). Flora Neotropica: Monograph 45. New York Botanical Garden Press, New York.
    • [20] Purseglove, J. W. et al. (1981). Spices. Tropical Agriculture Series Volume 1, Longman, London.

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    [A] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    International Plant Names Index
    The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
    [B] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [C] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [D]

    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [E] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [F] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
    [G] © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0