1. Family: Asteraceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Gymnanthemum Cass.
      1. Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is E. Bolivia to Brazil, Tropical Africa, W. Yemen.

    [FZ]

    Compositae, G. V. Pope. Flora Zambesiaca 6:1. 1992

    Habit
    A many-stemmed shrub or small tree up to c. 8 m. tall.
    Stem
    Stems slender with a pale-brown closely longitudinally furrowed bark; branches and twigs greyish pubescent, the indumentum of 1-armed T-shaped hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves with petioles 0.2–1.5 cm. long; lamina mostly 7–14 x 3–4 cm., sometimes smaller or occasionally up to c. 28 x 9 cm., c. 4 times as long as wide, narrowly elliptic or lanceolate-elliptic, apex tapering acute to sub-acuminate, base ± narrowly cuneate, margins subentire to serrulate, upper surface puberulous to glabrescent, lower surface paler and ± tomentose or glabrescent with venation ± reticulate and somewhat raised.
    Capitulum
    Capitula very numerous in terminal, divaricately branching, rounded panicles; stalks 3–12 mm. long, stiff, tomentellous.
    Involucre
    Involucres 3–5 mm. long and 3–6 mm. wide, mostly wider than long, subglobose becoming hemispheric or broadly campanulate.
    Phyllaries
    Phyllaries many, tightly appressed-imbricate at first, thinly cartilaginous, sometimes puberulous and glandular at the apex and ciliate on the margins, otherwise glabrous; the outer phyllaries from c. 1 mm. long, ovate-elliptic; the middle phyllaries broadly oblong-elliptic, rounded to obtuse at the apex; the innermost up to c. 5 mm. long, narrowly oblong-oblanceolate with a rounded to acute apex.
    Florets
    Florets 10–24 per capitulum; corollas exserted above the involucre, whitish, sweet-scented, 6–9 mm. long, narrowly funnel-shaped.
    Fruits
    Achenes 2.2–3.5 mm. long, narrowly turbinate to subcylindric tapering to the base, c. 10-ribbed, setulose particularly on the ribs, glandular; pappus exserted beyond the involucre, outer pappus of very caducous linear scale-like setae 1–3 mm. long, inner pappus of more persistent sordid to brownish, rigid, slender setae widening and somewhat flattened towards the apex 4–6 mm. long and barbellate.
    [FWTA]

    Compositae, C. D. Adams. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A shrub or small tree 6-15 ft. high with striate, pubescent branchlets becoming glabrous
    Florets
    Florets sweet-scented, white, in heads 1/4 in. broad
    Fruits
    Pappus buff or reddish
    Ecology
    Common and often planted.
    [FTEA]

    Compositae, H. Beentje, C. Jeffrey & D.J.N. Hind. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree 0.5-10 m tall, much-branched, spreading, coppice-growing, trunk up to 40 cm in diameter; bark grey or brown, smooth, becoming longitudinally fissured; slash green, becoming black on exposure; stems pubescent with asymmetrical T-shaped hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate, elliptic, lanceolate or (broadly) ovate, 4-15(-28) cm long, 1.2-4(-15) cm wide, base cuneate or rounded, margins minutely remotely denticulate to coarsely serrate, apex shortly acuminate, apiculate, rather thinly pubescent and glabrescent except for the midrib above, finely crispate-pubescent especially on the veins and often ± glabrescent beneath; petiole 0.2-4 cm long.
    Capitulum
    Capitula several to numerous in terminal compound corymbiform cymes; stalks of individual capitula 3-12 mm long, pubescent; involucre cylindrical, ovoid-cylindrical or broadly ellipsoid, 3-5 mm long; phyllaries 3-7-seriate, appressed, broadly ovate to lanceolate, 1-4.4 mm long, obtuse to rounded, apiculate, pale green, slightly darker near the apex, finely white-ciliate on the margins.
    Florets
    Florets 10-24 per capitulum, sweetly scented, strongly exserted; corolla white, occasionally tinged pale lilac, mauve or pink, 5.3-8.2 mm long, lobes erect, connivent, glabrous, 2-3 mm long, with capitate glands.
    Fruits
    Achenes 1.7-3.5 mm long, 10-ribbed, thinly pubescent and usually glandular; outer pappus of linear scales, often scant, caducous, 0.2-1.3 mm long, inner of cream or brownish bristles 4-7 mm long, distally flattened.
    Figures
    Fig. 40.
    Habitat
    River, lake, waterhole and forest margins, woodland, wooded grassland, grassland and secondary bushland; 300-1950 m
    Distribution
    tropical Africa K2 K3 K4/K7 K5 K6 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 U1

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Bitter leaf, River vernonia, Tree vernonia

    Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 2010 Etuge, M. [5303], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000673944
    Feb 1, 2008 Simon, G. [724], Tanzania Vernonia amygdalina K000438256
    Apr 1, 2002 Silva, N.T. [58345], Bahia Vernonia amygdalina K000068841
    Apr 1, 2002 Belém, R.P. [1760], Bahia Vernonia amygdalina K000068842
    Mar 1, 2002 Catharino, E.L.M. [862], Brazil Vernonia amygdalina K001066078
    Mar 1, 2002 Capellari, L. Jr. [s.n.], Brazil Vernonia amygdalina K001066079
    Mar 1, 2002 Endoh, M.T. [s.n.], Brazil Vernonia amygdalina K001066077
    Oct 1, 2001 Dutra, E. de A. [44], Bahia Vernonia amygdalina K000068827
    Oct 1, 2001 Discentes da UEFS [s.n.], Bahia Vernonia amygdalina K000068828
    Oct 1, 2001 Glaziou, A.F.M. [3700], Brazil Vernonia amygdalina K001066074
    Oct 1, 2001 Vieira, R.F. [566], Brazil Vernonia amygdalina K001066080
    Oct 1, 2001 Coutinho, P.P. [s.n.], Brazil Vernonia amygdalina K001066075
    Jul 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [1534], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000108743
    Jan 1, 1989 Westphal [9466], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051542
    Jan 1, 1989 Westphal [10066], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051543
    Mar 1, 1985 Erens, J. [305], Botswana Vernonia amygdalina K000489270
    Mar 1, 1985 Lugard, E.J. [249], Botswana Vernonia amygdalina K000489267
    Mar 1, 1985 Pole-Evans, I.B. [4129], Botswana Vernonia amygdalina K000489271
    Apr 1, 1976 Letouzey, R. [14607], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051538
    Jan 1, 1959 Morton, J.K. [933], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051569
    Ash [225], Ethiopia Vernonia amygdalina 34096.000
    Ash [1831], Ethiopia Vernonia amygdalina 35540.000
    Ash [1537], Ethiopia Vernonia amygdalina 35782.000
    Hepper, F.N. [1858], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051568
    Gossweiler, J. [1162], Angola Vernonia amygdalina K001307292
    Story, R. [4771], Botswana Vernonia amygdalina K000489268
    Maitland, T.D. [316], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051565
    Maitland, T.D. [53], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051566
    Maitland, T.D. [1165], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051567
    Schimper [31], Ethiopia Vernonia amygdalina K000272915 isolectotype
    Chevalier [44], Mali Vernonia amygdalina K000391761
    Badra, T., Nigeria Vernonia amygdalina 51380.000
    Vogel [257], Nigeria Vernonia amygdalina K000272841
    Vogel [257], Nigeria Vernonia amygdalina K000272840
    Pereira, B.A.S. [293], Brazil Vernonia amygdalina K001066076
    Kotschy [479], Ethiopia Vernonia amygdalina K000272913 isotype
    Kotschy [479], Ethiopia Vernonia amygdalina K000272914
    Dunlap [125], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051564
    Smith, P.A. [226], Botswana Vernonia amygdalina K000489269
    Smith, P.A. [138], Botswana Vernonia amygdalina K000489272
    Thompson, S.A. [1826], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051541
    Brunt, M.A. [144], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051560
    Brunt, M.A. [143], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051561
    Brunt, M.A. [23], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051562

    First published in Repert. Bot. Syst. 2: 948 (1843)

    Accepted by

    • Roskov Y. & al. (eds.) (2018). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/