1. Family: Asteraceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Gymnanthemum Cass.
      1. Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is E. Bolivia to Brazil, Tropical Africa, W. Yemen.


    Compositae, G. V. Pope. Flora Zambesiaca 6:1. 1992

    A many-stemmed shrub or small tree up to c. 8 m. tall.
    Stems slender with a pale-brown closely longitudinally furrowed bark; branches and twigs greyish pubescent, the indumentum of 1-armed T-shaped hairs.
    Leaves with petioles 0.2–1.5 cm. long; lamina mostly 7–14 x 3–4 cm., sometimes smaller or occasionally up to c. 28 x 9 cm., c. 4 times as long as wide, narrowly elliptic or lanceolate-elliptic, apex tapering acute to sub-acuminate, base ± narrowly cuneate, margins subentire to serrulate, upper surface puberulous to glabrescent, lower surface paler and ± tomentose or glabrescent with venation ± reticulate and somewhat raised.
    Capitula very numerous in terminal, divaricately branching, rounded panicles; stalks 3–12 mm. long, stiff, tomentellous.
    Involucres 3–5 mm. long and 3–6 mm. wide, mostly wider than long, subglobose becoming hemispheric or broadly campanulate.
    Phyllaries many, tightly appressed-imbricate at first, thinly cartilaginous, sometimes puberulous and glandular at the apex and ciliate on the margins, otherwise glabrous; the outer phyllaries from c. 1 mm. long, ovate-elliptic; the middle phyllaries broadly oblong-elliptic, rounded to obtuse at the apex; the innermost up to c. 5 mm. long, narrowly oblong-oblanceolate with a rounded to acute apex.
    Florets 10–24 per capitulum; corollas exserted above the involucre, whitish, sweet-scented, 6–9 mm. long, narrowly funnel-shaped.
    Achenes 2.2–3.5 mm. long, narrowly turbinate to subcylindric tapering to the base, c. 10-ribbed, setulose particularly on the ribs, glandular; pappus exserted beyond the involucre, outer pappus of very caducous linear scale-like setae 1–3 mm. long, inner pappus of more persistent sordid to brownish, rigid, slender setae widening and somewhat flattened towards the apex 4–6 mm. long and barbellate.

    Compositae, C. D. Adams. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    A shrub or small tree 6-15 ft. high with striate, pubescent branchlets becoming glabrous
    Florets sweet-scented, white, in heads 1/4 in. broad
    Pappus buff or reddish
    Common and often planted.

    Compositae, H. Beentje, C. Jeffrey & D.J.N. Hind. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

    Shrub or small tree 0.5-10 m tall, much-branched, spreading, coppice-growing, trunk up to 40 cm in diameter; bark grey or brown, smooth, becoming longitudinally fissured; slash green, becoming black on exposure; stems pubescent with asymmetrical T-shaped hairs.
    Leaves petiolate, elliptic, lanceolate or (broadly) ovate, 4-15(-28) cm long, 1.2-4(-15) cm wide, base cuneate or rounded, margins minutely remotely denticulate to coarsely serrate, apex shortly acuminate, apiculate, rather thinly pubescent and glabrescent except for the midrib above, finely crispate-pubescent especially on the veins and often ± glabrescent beneath; petiole 0.2-4 cm long.
    Capitula several to numerous in terminal compound corymbiform cymes; stalks of individual capitula 3-12 mm long, pubescent; involucre cylindrical, ovoid-cylindrical or broadly ellipsoid, 3-5 mm long; phyllaries 3-7-seriate, appressed, broadly ovate to lanceolate, 1-4.4 mm long, obtuse to rounded, apiculate, pale green, slightly darker near the apex, finely white-ciliate on the margins.
    Florets 10-24 per capitulum, sweetly scented, strongly exserted; corolla white, occasionally tinged pale lilac, mauve or pink, 5.3-8.2 mm long, lobes erect, connivent, glabrous, 2-3 mm long, with capitate glands.
    Achenes 1.7-3.5 mm long, 10-ribbed, thinly pubescent and usually glandular; outer pappus of linear scales, often scant, caducous, 0.2-1.3 mm long, inner of cream or brownish bristles 4-7 mm long, distally flattened.
    Fig. 40.
    River, lake, waterhole and forest margins, woodland, wooded grassland, grassland and secondary bushland; 300-1950 m
    tropical Africa K2 K3 K4/K7 K5 K6 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 U1



    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    Bitter leaf, River vernonia, Tree vernonia

    Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 2010 Etuge, M. [5303], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000673944
    Feb 1, 2008 Simon, G. [724], Tanzania Vernonia amygdalina K000438256
    Apr 1, 2002 Silva, N.T. [58345], Bahia Vernonia amygdalina K000068841
    Apr 1, 2002 Belém, R.P. [1760], Bahia Vernonia amygdalina K000068842
    Mar 1, 2002 Catharino, E.L.M. [862], Brazil Vernonia amygdalina K001066078
    Mar 1, 2002 Capellari, L. Jr. [s.n.], Brazil Vernonia amygdalina K001066079
    Mar 1, 2002 Endoh, M.T. [s.n.], Brazil Vernonia amygdalina K001066077
    Oct 1, 2001 Dutra, E. de A. [44], Bahia Vernonia amygdalina K000068827
    Oct 1, 2001 Discentes da UEFS [s.n.], Bahia Vernonia amygdalina K000068828
    Oct 1, 2001 Glaziou, A.F.M. [3700], Brazil Vernonia amygdalina K001066074
    Oct 1, 2001 Vieira, R.F. [566], Brazil Vernonia amygdalina K001066080
    Oct 1, 2001 Coutinho, P.P. [s.n.], Brazil Vernonia amygdalina K001066075
    Jul 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [1534], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000108743
    Jan 1, 1989 Westphal [9466], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051542
    Jan 1, 1989 Westphal [10066], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051543
    Mar 1, 1985 Erens, J. [305], Botswana Vernonia amygdalina K000489270
    Mar 1, 1985 Lugard, E.J. [249], Botswana Vernonia amygdalina K000489267
    Mar 1, 1985 Pole-Evans, I.B. [4129], Botswana Vernonia amygdalina K000489271
    Apr 1, 1976 Letouzey, R. [14607], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051538
    Jan 1, 1959 Morton, J.K. [933], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051569
    Ash [225], Ethiopia Vernonia amygdalina 34096.000
    Ash [1831], Ethiopia Vernonia amygdalina 35540.000
    Ash [1537], Ethiopia Vernonia amygdalina 35782.000
    Hepper, F.N. [1858], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051568
    Gossweiler, J. [1162], Angola Vernonia amygdalina K001307292
    Story, R. [4771], Botswana Vernonia amygdalina K000489268
    Maitland, T.D. [316], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051565
    Maitland, T.D. [53], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051566
    Maitland, T.D. [1165], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051567
    Schimper [31], Ethiopia Vernonia amygdalina K000272915 isolectotype
    Chevalier [44], Mali Vernonia amygdalina K000391761
    Badra, T., Nigeria Vernonia amygdalina 51380.000
    Vogel [257], Nigeria Vernonia amygdalina K000272841
    Vogel [257], Nigeria Vernonia amygdalina K000272840
    Pereira, B.A.S. [293], Brazil Vernonia amygdalina K001066076
    Kotschy [479], Ethiopia Vernonia amygdalina K000272913 isotype
    Kotschy [479], Ethiopia Vernonia amygdalina K000272914
    Dunlap [125], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051564
    Smith, P.A. [226], Botswana Vernonia amygdalina K000489269
    Smith, P.A. [138], Botswana Vernonia amygdalina K000489272
    Thompson, S.A. [1826], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051541
    Brunt, M.A. [144], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051560
    Brunt, M.A. [143], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051561
    Brunt, M.A. [23], Cameroon Vernonia amygdalina K000051562

    First published in Repert. Bot. Syst. 2: 948 (1843)

    Accepted by

    • Roskov Y. & al. (eds.) (2018). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands.


    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa

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    Kew Backbone Distributions
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    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
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