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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Tropical & Subtropical Asia.

[LOWO]

Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

Note

Relationships among genera of Millettieae have been notoriously difficult to unravel based on traditional morphological evidence and this is exemplified by the alphabetical arrangement of genera in the tribal treatments of Geesink (1981; 1984) and Polhill (1994). Geesink (1981) recognised 44 genera and c. 870 species in tribe Millettieae (as ‘Tephrosieae’) while 43 genera were accounted for in Geesink (1984) and Polhill (1994). The genera recognised, however, varied considerably with only 33 genera in common to both treatments of Geesink, while the list of Polhill (1994) combined elements of Geesink (1981, 1984) with new data accumulated since then. Tephrosia has traditionally comprised some 400 species but this is re-estimated at c. 350 species here.

The traditional circumscription of the predominantly pantropical and subtropical tribe Millettieae is followed here (Fig. 45), with 45 genera and (904)–909–(914) species being recognised, (i.e. excluding the two genera and 11 species transferred to Brongniartieae, see Table 8), although the concept of what comprises Millettieae sens. strict. is changing rapidly based on evidence from molecular phylogenies. Sequence data for millettioid genera comes from the plastid rbcL gene (Doyle et al., 1997; 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Hu & Chang, 2003), phytochrome nucleotide genes (Lavin et al., 1998), the plastid trnK-matK region (Hu et al., 2000) and the nuclear ITS region (Hu, 2000; Hu et al., 2002). Molecular data, together with reinterpreted evidence based on chemistry (Evans et al., 1985) and wood anatomy (Gasson et al., 2004), have been the basis for recognising a number of informal suprageneric groupings and for transferring Cyclolobium and Poecilanthe to tribe Brongniartieae (Table 8; Fig. 45).

 The most far-reaching result of the above molecular analyses was that a substantial part of the traditionally circumscribed tribe Phaseoleae is more closely allied to the core-Millettieae than to the Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade (see page 393). Circumscription of a revised tribe Millettieae is not possible at present until genera are more comprehensively sampled; however, a Millettioid sens. strict. group might be expected to include some genera in the basal millettioid and phaseoloid group, Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae, Ophrestiinae and in small part the Erythrininae, tribe Abreae and the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45). The basal millettioid and phaseoloid group comprises 17 genera (94 species) that may belong either in the Millettioids sens. strict. or Phaseoleae sens. lat., or to a clade sister to both these groups (e.g., Kajita et al., 2001). The core-Millettieae clade comprises c. 22 genera and c. 777 spp., with some additional generic segregates being necessary within the ‘canavanine group’ (Evans et al., 1985), to accommodate species of Millettia sens. lat. and Fordia sens. lat., which on the basis of molecular and chemical evidence are excluded from Millettia and Fordia sens. strict.

Relationships between the major groups of genera centred on Lonchocarpus, Derris, Millettia and Tephrosia remain obscure, and still reflect a geographical bias in segregating them, i.e. distributions are limited largely to the New World in the Lonchocarpus group, and the Old World in the other groups. The suggestion that the Andean South American genus Apurimacia might be sister to the largely Old World Tephrosia rather than to Lonchocarpus (e.g., Kajita et al., 2001) is possibly indicative of other Old World–New World sister groups yet to be found. Further molecular evidence will probably result in an overall reduction in the number of genera recognised, particularly in the Tephrosia and Lonchocarpus groups where various small or monotypic ‘one-organ’ genera may be better placed within larger genera. Ptycholobium, Requienia and Paratephrosia, for example, are difficult to distinguish from Tephrosia, but for the emphasis traditionally placed on their atypical pods.

Placed among a basal millettioid and phaseoloid group of genera
Habit
Lianas or scandent shrubs to small trees
Ecology
Tropical rain forest, mangrove or thicket
Distribution
WC Africa (4-5 spp.); Asia (S China, Indian subcontinent, Indo-China, Malesia and Papuasia, 2 spp.)

[LOWO]

Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

Note

Relationships among genera of Millettieae have been notoriously difficult to unravel based on traditional morphological evidence and this is exemplified by the alphabetical arrangement of genera in the tribal treatments of Geesink (1981; 1984) and Polhill (1994). Geesink (1981) recognised 44 genera and c. 870 species in tribe Millettieae (as ‘Tephrosieae’) while 43 genera were accounted for in Geesink (1984) and Polhill (1994). The genera recognised, however, varied considerably with only 33 genera in common to both treatments of Geesink, while the list of Polhill (1994) combined elements of Geesink (1981, 1984) with new data accumulated since then. Tephrosia has traditionally comprised some 400 species but this is re-estimated at c. 350 species here.

The traditional circumscription of the predominantly pantropical and subtropical tribe Millettieae is followed here (Fig. 45), with 45 genera and (904)–909–(914) species being recognised, (i.e. excluding the two genera and 11 species transferred to Brongniartieae, see Table 8), although the concept of what comprises Millettieae sens. strict. is changing rapidly based on evidence from molecular phylogenies. Sequence data for millettioid genera comes from the plastid rbcL gene (Doyle et al., 1997; 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Hu & Chang, 2003), phytochrome nucleotide genes (Lavin et al., 1998), the plastid trnK-matK region (Hu et al., 2000) and the nuclear ITS region (Hu, 2000; Hu et al., 2002). Molecular data, together with reinterpreted evidence based on chemistry (Evans et al., 1985) and wood anatomy (Gasson et al., 2004), have been the basis for recognising a number of informal suprageneric groupings and for transferring Cyclolobium and Poecilanthe to tribe Brongniartieae (Table 8; Fig. 45).

 The most far-reaching result of the above molecular analyses was that a substantial part of the traditionally circumscribed tribe Phaseoleae is more closely allied to the core-Millettieae than to the Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade (see page 393). Circumscription of a revised tribe Millettieae is not possible at present until genera are more comprehensively sampled; however, a Millettioid sens. strict. group might be expected to include some genera in the basal millettioid and phaseoloid group, Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae, Ophrestiinae and in small part the Erythrininae, tribe Abreae and the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45). The basal millettioid and phaseoloid group comprises 17 genera (94 species) that may belong either in the Millettioids sens. strict. or Phaseoleae sens. lat., or to a clade sister to both these groups (e.g., Kajita et al., 2001). The core-Millettieae clade comprises c. 22 genera and c. 777 spp., with some additional generic segregates being necessary within the ‘canavanine group’ (Evans et al., 1985), to accommodate species of Millettia sens. lat. and Fordia sens. lat., which on the basis of molecular and chemical evidence are excluded from Millettia and Fordia sens. strict.

Relationships between the major groups of genera centred on Lonchocarpus, Derris, Millettia and Tephrosia remain obscure, and still reflect a geographical bias in segregating them, i.e. distributions are limited largely to the New World in the Lonchocarpus group, and the Old World in the other groups. The suggestion that the Andean South American genus Apurimacia might be sister to the largely Old World Tephrosia rather than to Lonchocarpus (e.g., Kajita et al., 2001) is possibly indicative of other Old World–New World sister groups yet to be found. Further molecular evidence will probably result in an overall reduction in the number of genera recognised, particularly in the Tephrosia and Lonchocarpus groups where various small or monotypic ‘one-organ’ genera may be better placed within larger genera. Ptycholobium, Requienia and Paratephrosia, for example, are difficult to distinguish from Tephrosia, but for the emphasis traditionally placed on their atypical pods.

Placed in the basal millettioid and phaseoloid group of genera (Hu et al., 2000) and close to Aganope (Hu et al., 2002)
Habit
Trees
Ecology
Tropical seasonally dry woodland and bushland
Distribution
Africa (Sudanian and Zambezian regions)

[FTEA]

Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Morphology General Habit
Deciduous tree; slash producing blood-red resinous exudate
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, imparipinnate; stipules present, caducous; stipels almost always absent; lateral leaflets subopposite
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in precocious lateral spreading panicles, a number together from young shoots which grow out into leafy branches; bracts and bracteoles small and caducous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx broadly campanulate, with 5 very short lobes, the upper 2 obscure
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white; standard with short claw and broadly expanded blade, suborbicular to oblate, with 2 prominent thickenings at the base of the blade inside; wings oblong-obovate, ± same length as the other petals; keel-petals with elliptic-falcate blades lightly coherent along the lower side
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Vexillary stamen free; anthers dorsifixed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary sessile, few-ovulate; style curved, attenuate, with a small incurved pale-coloured stigma
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit compressed, indehiscent, linear-oblong, sessile with thin relatively narrow wings down either side and a venose medial part hardened over the 1–several seed-cavities
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ± oblong-reniform, but with a rather small eccentric hilar-sinus, smooth, red-brown; radicle appressed to the cotyledons.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca Leguminosae subfamily Papillionoideae by J.M. Lock*

Morphology General Habit
Deciduous tree. Deciduous tree.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves imparipinnate, stipulate; leaflets opposite or subopposite, exstipellate. Leaves imparipinnate, stipulate; leaflets opposite or subopposite, exstipellate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences of lateral panicles borne on new shoots before the leaves. Inflorescences of lateral panicles borne on new shoots before the leaves.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white. Flowers white.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx campanulate, shortly denticulate. Calyx campanulate, shortly denticulate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Standard suborbicular, abruptly reflexed at the base; wings and keel petals equalling the standard. Standard suborbicular, abruptly reflexed at the base; wings and keel petals equalling the standard.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens in 2 bundles; anthers dorsifixed. Stamens in 2 bundles; anthers dorsifixed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk intrastaminal, lobulate. Disk intrastaminal, lobulate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary few-ovulate, subsessile. Ovary few-ovulate, subsessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pod linear, flat, winged on both margins, indehiscent. Pod linear, flat, winged on both margins, indehiscent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed oblong, radicle inflexed. Seed oblong, radicle inflexed.

[LOWO]
Use
Used as medicine

[LOWO]
Use
Used as timber, fibre, medicine, food additives (ground seed meal) and for tanning and fodder

Native to:

Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Laos, Liberia, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mozambique, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Aganope Miq. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Fl. Ned. Ind. 1(1): 151 (1855)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Legumes of the World Online
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0