1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Lysiphyllum (Benth.) de Wit

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Thailand to Australia.


    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Trees, shrubs (semi-scandent) and lianas. May have tendrils.
    Can grow in various soil types including calcareous, granitic and basaltic. May inhabit seasonally dry tropical forest and woodland, vine thicket, floodplains, alluvial flats, tidal forest, scrub such as Brigalow and Gidgee, mangroves, the banks of rivers and streams and occasionally on dunes and coral islets.
    4 species are endemic to Australia. L. binatum occurs throughout Malesia, extending to N Australia and Thailand (and preferring a seasonal climate). L. diphyllum occurs in India, Sri Lanka and Thailand. L. winitii is endemic to Thailand. 2 species are endemic to N Borneo (Sarawak).
    A second Thailand endemic, Bauhinia strychnifolia Craib, was transferred to Lysiphyllum by Schmitz (1977) based on pollen type, but it lacks the two separate leaflets otherwise typical of the genus and its position is thus equivocal. Lysiphyllum was placed in the informal Phanera group of Bauhinia by Wunderlin et al. (1981) and as Bauhinia subgenus Phanera section Lysiphyllum by Wunderlin et al. (1987), who further divided the section into 2 subsections and 5 series, including series Africanae for the single species B. gossweileri (here tentatively retained in Gigasiphon, although see note under that genus). De Wit (1956) stated that Lysiphyllum winitii (Craib) de Wit is clearly a link species between Lysiphyllum and Gigasiphon. In the molecular analyses of Bruneau et al. (2001) and Forest (unpubl.), and the combined molecular-morphological analyses of Herendeen et al. (2003a), three species of Lysiphyllum (as Bauhinia in the first two analyses) from Australia form a well supported clade. This is corroborated by Sinou et al.'s (2009) phylogeny based on the plastid trnL-trnF region, which shows the 4 Australian endemics as well as L. binatum and L. winitii forming a well supported clade. Palynologically Lysiphyllum is very similar to Cercis, Adenolobus, Griffonia, Gigasiphon, Barklya, Brenierea and Bauhinia s.s. species (B. petersiana, B. bohniana, and B. galpinii) (Banks et al. 2013 & 2014).

    Tribe Cercideae is basally branching in the Leguminosae (Bruneau et al., 2001; Herendeen et al., 2003a), as predicted by Wunderlin et al. (1981), and Cercis is the most basally branching genus in the tribe. While much taxonomic work has been carried out on the tribe in the past thirty years (e.g., Larsen et al., 1980, 1984; Wunderlin, 1976, 1979; Wunderlin et al., 1981, 1987; Zhang, 1995; Vaz, 2003; Vaz & Tozzi, 2003), few species have been included in phylogenetic analyses and inter- and intra-generic relationships are still largely unresolved with the exception of Cercis (Hao et al., 2001; Davis et al., 2002b).

    Wunderlin (1979) and Wunderlin et al. (1981) divided the tribe into two subtribes, Cercidinae and Bauhiniinae, based on seed, floral and fruit characters. Walpers (1842) had already down-ranked Bauhinieae Benth. (1840) to subtribal status, thus the combination Bauhiniinae (Benth.) Wunderlin (1979) is superfluous. Polhill (1994) kept the Cercideae unchanged with two subtribes and five genera. While the Cercidinae contains three small distinct genera, Cercis, Griffonia and Adenolobus, the Bauhiniinae houses the monospecific Madagascan genus Brenierea and the large, diverse pantropical genus Bauhinia sens. lat. which has been segregated into as many as twenty-six genera by various authors (Wunderlin, 1976).

    While many of the Bauhinia segregates are based on minor morphological differences, others are distinguished morphologically by a suite of characters. Britton and Rose (1930), in their account of the Caesalpiniaceae for the North American Flora, divided Bauhinia into several segregate genera, including Schnella Raddi which here is treated as a synonym of Phanera, but might prove to be distinct as indicated in recent molecular analyses by Forest (unpublished data). Britton and Killip (1936) recognised Schnella as distinct from Bauhinia in Colombia. De Wit (1956), treating ‘Malaysian Bauhinieae’, recognised Bracteolanthus, Lysiphyllum, Gigasiphon, Piliostigma, Lasiobema and Phanera as separate genera and this was largely followed by subsequent flora writers in Africa and New Guinea (e.g., Brenan, 1967; Coetzer & Ross in Ross, 1977; Verdcourt, 1979). Others have retained a more inclusive Bauhinia proposed by Wunderlin et al. (1981, 1987), e.g., Macbride (1943: 207–220) for Peru; Larsen et al. (1980) for the Flora of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam; Larsen et al. (1984) for the Flora of Thailand; Chen (1988) for China, and Larsen & Larsen in Hou et al. (1996) in Flora Malesiana. Zhang (1995) published a morphological cladistic analysis of the series of Bauhinia sens. lat., but few species of Bauhinia have been included in molecular studies. It remains equivocal as to whether Bauhinia sens. lat. is monophyletic, but preliminary molecular results indicate that some elements should be reinstated as distinct genera (Bruneau et al., in prep.; Forest, unpubl.). This runs contrary to the findings of Larsen & Larsen in Hou et al. (1996) who concluded “that Bauhinia in the sense of Linnaeus, Bentham, De Candolle, Taubert and Hutchinson is an evolutionary unit and a very natural genus”. Larsen and Larsen also noted that Bauhinia sens. lat. presents a reticulate pattern of variation across its pantropical range (this apparently conflicting somewhat with its status as a “natural genus”). While this is undoubtedly true if the genus is considered as all-inclusive, recent studies of legume distributions in general (Schrire et al., this volume and 2005) have revealed repeated patterns of generic distribution which appear to be duplicated by at least some of the segregates of Bauhinia. If these segregates are recognised as distinct genera (as several are in this treatment) then the reticulate pattern of variation of Bauhinia is far less pronounced. More sampling at the species level in molecular analyses and more morphological studies are needed across the full pantropical range of Bauhinia sens. lat. before inter- and intra-generic relationships are clearly resolved. In the current account genera that have been recognised as distinct from Bauhinia in at least one flora treatment that post-dates De Wit (1956) have been treated as separate genera, especially where these are supported by the preliminary results from a chloroplast trnL (intron and spacer) sequence analysis (Forest, unpubl.). The reader’s attention is also alerted to the detailed infra-generic division of Bauhinia by Wunderlin et al. (1987) in their reorganisation of the Cercideae which also forms a sound basis for sampling in future studies.

    Palynological studies of Bauhinia (Larsen, 1975; Schmitz, 1977; Ferguson & Pearce, 1986) have all stressed the considerable variation in pollen morphology within the genus sens. lat. and there are clear correlations between pollen exine ornamentation, floral morphology and pollination. It remains to be seen just how closely these correspond to evolutionary relationships of species. Nevertheless, Schmitz (1977) made several new combinations in segregate genera of Bauhinia based on palynological type. These included new names in Lasiobema, Lysiphyllum, Pauletia, Perlebia and Phanera (Pauletia and Perlebia here considered as synonyms of Bauhinia). Zhang (1995), who analysed morphologically the series of Bauhinia proposed by Wunderlin et al. (1987), concluded that while some supraspecific segregates of the genus were supported, none of the subgenera appeared to be monophyletic. Several realignments were proposed.

    The Cercideae as presented here includes 12 genera and (322)–335–(348) species. This treatment differs from Wunderlin et al. (1981, 1987) and Polhill (1994) in that Barklya, Gigasiphon, Lasiobema, Lysiphyllum, Phanera, Piliostigma and Tylosema are considered distinct from Bauhinia. While some of these may well be reincluded in Bauhinia after further study, yet other genera may be reinstated from within Bauhinia. Bracteolanthus, treated as distinct by De Wit (1956), is here included in Lysiphyllum following Wunderlin et al. (1987), while Barklya, considered congeneric with Bauhinia by Wunderlin (1979) and Wunderlin et al. (1981, 1987) is considered distinct following George (1998b) and Forest (unpublished data). The reinstatement of Lasiobema appears least well supported (Forest, unpubl.).

    According to de Wit (1956) L .binatum has been used for the treatment of blood spitting, bleeding in general and dysentery. De Wit also highlighted that the bark of L. winitii was chewed with betel leaves for its astringency. George (1998b) indicated that the roots and bark of L. cunninghamii were used as a headache treatment, an antipyretic and an antiseptic. George (1998b) also described that the nectar of L. cunninghamii was drunk for its sweetness and that L. cunninghamii and L. gilvum have been used as fodder trees.



    Native to:

    Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Christmas I., Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, New Guinea, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, South Australia, Thailand, Western Australia

    Introduced into:

    India, Sudan

    Lysiphyllum (Benth.) de Wit appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Reinwardtia 3: 431 (1956)


    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online