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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka.

[FTEA]

Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Morphology General Habit
Small trees or shrubs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves imparipinnate, without stipels, the leaflets entire, reticulately veined and usually widest below the middle
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in terminal pseudoracemes, bluish-purple; standard silky outside, its short claw sharply differentiated from the blade; wings and keel pubescent at the margins near the base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Vexillary filament free and sharply bent near the base, then connate with the other 9; filament-tips somewhat widened
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Style glabrous, tapering; stigma terminal, minute, free from hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pod densely pubescent, several-seeded, not, or very tardily, dehiscent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds without arils.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or small trees
Morphology Leaves
Leaves imparipinnate; venation of leaflets sometimes ± reticulate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers in terminal pseudoracemes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx with the upper 2 teeth almost united and apparently 4-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Standard pubescent outside
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Vexillary filament attached to the others, but free at the base; filaments slightly dilated at the tip
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disc indistinct
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style short, recurved, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pod flat, thinly woody, not or tardily dehiscent.
Distribution
Some 11-12 species in Madagascar, one of which extending to tropical Africa, India and Ceylon, and one in South Africa.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca Leguminosae subfamily Papillionoideae by B. Verdcourt

Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Upper filament free and sharply bent near to base, often connate with sheath above; tips of free parts of filaments sometimes ± widened. Upper filament free and sharply bent near to base, often connate with sheath above; tips of free parts of filaments sometimes ± widened.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary sessile, many-ovuled; style hardened, tapering, glabrous; stigma terminal, minute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pod linear, usually under 1 cm wide, densely hairy, pubescent (or glabrous in some Madagascan species), several-seeded, not or very tardily dehiscent or breaking irregularly (in some Madagascan species splitting into flat or spiralling valves), margins thickened. Pod linear, usually under 1 cm wide, densely hairy, pubescent (or glabrous in some Madagascan species), several-seeded, not or very tardily dehiscent or breaking irregularly (in some Madagascan species splitting into flat or spiralling valves), margins thickened.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds reniform, with aril. Seeds reniform, with aril.
Morphology General Habit
Small, silky-pubescent trees and shrubs. Small, silky-pubescent trees and shrubs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves imparipinnate; leaflets reticulately veined (rarely with numerous parallel nerves as in Tephrosia spp.), the blades mostly widest below the middle; stipules small; stipels absent. Leaves imparipinnate; leaflets reticulately veined (rarely with numerous parallel nerves as in Tephrosia spp.), the blades mostly widest below the middle; stipules small; stipels absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers sometimes scented, blue-purple, red or rarely white, in terminal pseudoracemes; bracts small; bracteoles absent. Flowers sometimes scented, blue-purple, red or rarely white, in terminal pseudoracemes; bracts small; bracteoles absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx teeth short, ± unequal, the upper 2 ± connate. Calyx teeth short, ± unequal, the upper 2 ± connate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Standard silky outside, with transverse basal callus, the claw short but sharply defined from the blade; wings falcate-oblong and keel incurved, obtuse, both pubescent at the margins near the base. Standard silky outside, with transverse basal callus, the claw short but sharply defined from the blade; wings falcate-oblong and keel incurved, obtuse, both pubescent at the margins near the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary sessile, many-ovuled; style hardened, tapering, glabrous; stigma terminal, minute.

[LOWO]

Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

Habit
Shrubs or trees
Ecology
Seasonally dry tropical forest (sometimes in more humid evergreen forest), woodland, grassland, bushland, thicket and xerophytic shrubland, in sand and on rocky outcrops
Distribution
Madagascar, 1 widespread sp. (M. sericea (Willd.) A. Chev.) also in Africa, India and Sri Lanka
Note
Mundulea is very closely related to Tephrosia and it is doubtful whether it should be maintained as a distinct genus (Du Puy & Labat in Du Puy et al., 2002)

Relationships among genera of Millettieae have been notoriously difficult to unravel based on traditional morphological evidence and this is exemplified by the alphabetical arrangement of genera in the tribal treatments of Geesink (1981; 1984) and Polhill (1994). Geesink (1981) recognised 44 genera and c. 870 species in tribe Millettieae (as ‘Tephrosieae’) while 43 genera were accounted for in Geesink (1984) and Polhill (1994). The genera recognised, however, varied considerably with only 33 genera in common to both treatments of Geesink, while the list of Polhill (1994) combined elements of Geesink (1981, 1984) with new data accumulated since then. Tephrosia has traditionally comprised some 400 species but this is re-estimated at c. 350 species here.

The traditional circumscription of the predominantly pantropical and subtropical tribe Millettieae is followed here (Fig. 45), with 45 genera and (904)–909–(914) species being recognised, (i.e. excluding the two genera and 11 species transferred to Brongniartieae, see Table 8), although the concept of what comprises Millettieae sens. strict. is changing rapidly based on evidence from molecular phylogenies. Sequence data for millettioid genera comes from the plastid rbcL gene (Doyle et al., 1997; 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Hu & Chang, 2003), phytochrome nucleotide genes (Lavin et al., 1998), the plastid trnK-matK region (Hu et al., 2000) and the nuclear ITS region (Hu, 2000; Hu et al., 2002). Molecular data, together with reinterpreted evidence based on chemistry (Evans et al., 1985) and wood anatomy (Gasson et al., 2004), have been the basis for recognising a number of informal suprageneric groupings and for transferring Cyclolobium and Poecilanthe to tribe Brongniartieae (Table 8; Fig. 45).

 The most far-reaching result of the above molecular analyses was that a substantial part of the traditionally circumscribed tribe Phaseoleae is more closely allied to the core-Millettieae than to the Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade (see page 393). Circumscription of a revised tribe Millettieae is not possible at present until genera are more comprehensively sampled; however, a Millettioid sens. strict. group might be expected to include some genera in the basal millettioid and phaseoloid group, Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae, Ophrestiinae and in small part the Erythrininae, tribe Abreae and the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45). The basal millettioid and phaseoloid group comprises 17 genera (94 species) that may belong either in the Millettioids sens. strict. or Phaseoleae sens. lat., or to a clade sister to both these groups (e.g., Kajita et al., 2001). The core-Millettieae clade comprises c. 22 genera and c. 777 spp., with some additional generic segregates being necessary within the ‘canavanine group’ (Evans et al., 1985), to accommodate species of Millettia sens. lat. and Fordia sens. lat., which on the basis of molecular and chemical evidence are excluded from Millettia and Fordia sens. strict.

Relationships between the major groups of genera centred on Lonchocarpus, Derris, Millettia and Tephrosia remain obscure, and still reflect a geographical bias in segregating them, i.e. distributions are limited largely to the New World in the Lonchocarpus group, and the Old World in the other groups. The suggestion that the Andean South American genus Apurimacia might be sister to the largely Old World Tephrosia rather than to Lonchocarpus (e.g., Kajita et al., 2001) is possibly indicative of other Old World–New World sister groups yet to be found. Further molecular evidence will probably result in an overall reduction in the number of genera recognised, particularly in the Tephrosia and Lonchocarpus groups where various small or monotypic ‘one-organ’ genera may be better placed within larger genera. Ptycholobium, Requienia and Paratephrosia, for example, are difficult to distinguish from Tephrosia, but for the emphasis traditionally placed on their atypical pods.

[LOWO]
Use
Used as fish poisons, dye plants, medicine and ornamentals

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Botswana, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Guinea, Jawa, Mali, New Guinea

Mundulea (DC.) Benth. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in F.A.W.Miquel, Pl. Jungh.: 248 (1852)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00997-6 Scientific Data 8: 215.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 2: 126.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • in Miquel, Pl. Jungh.: 248 (1852).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • in Miq., Pl. Jungh.: 248 (1852)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Legumes of the World Online
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0