1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Parkia R.Br.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Africa, Fiji and Southern America..

    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Trees, without spines or prickles
    Leaves
    Leaves bipinnate; leaflets ± numerous; petiole usually glandular on its upper side
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences capitate, shortly claviform (with a globose apical part abruptly narrowed into a ± short cylindrical neck) or (but not in the African species) globose or constricted in the middle; heads stalked, solitary or paniculate
    Flowers
    Flowers in upper part of heads hermaphrodite, in lower part ♂ or neuter
    Calyx
    Calyx infundibuliform or long-tubular, gamosepalous, with 4–5 imbricate segments, 2 larger and 2–3 smaller, the mouth of the calyx being thus irregular
    Corolla
    Corolla with 5 petals, which are free, or ± united, not much exceeding the calyx
    Stamens
    Stamens 10, all fertile, their filaments connate below into a tube, to which the petals may be also adnate; anthers eglandular
    Ovary
    Ovary usually stipitate
    Fruits
    Pods oblong to linear, straight or curved, dehiscent or not, usually ± thick and often woody, or somewhat fleshy when living
    Seeds
    Seeds ellipsoid to ellipsoid-oblong, ± compressed or flattened.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    The tribe Mimoseae (sensu Bentham, 1875) is retained here simply as a matter of convenience. All recent phylogenetic analyses indicate that Ingeae and Acacieae are derived from within Mimoseae (Chappill & Maslin, 1995; Käss & Wink, 1996; Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003; Herendeen et al., 2003a), making it a paraphyletic group at best. The most recent studies indicate that it may not even be monophyletic with respect to the Caesalpinioideae (Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003).

    Although the outline of a new tribal classification of the mimosoids is emerging, we await better-supported phylogenies (based on more extensive data) before formalising new stable and useful groups. Some parts of the classification proposed here are better supported than others. Notably, the basal branches in Fig. 24 are poorly supported in most analyses and the relationships among the groups are likely to change as we acquire more data. As presently indicated (Luckow et al., 2003), the type genus Mimosa falls within the derived Piptadenia group which is in turn sister, and basally branching, to elements of Acacia and Ingeae (Fig. 24). A more narrowly circumscribed Mimoseae sens. strict. will thus leave the bulk of Mimoseae sens. lat. (i.e., as treated here) in need of new tribal allocation. The most conspicuous difference between the classification presented here and that of Lewis & Elias (1981) is the inclusion of tribe Parkieae within Mimoseae. The former was circumscribed based on imbricate aestivation of the calyx, and was considered the basal tribe within the Mimosoideae (Elias, 1981a). Recent phylogenetic analyses (Chappill & Maslin, 1995; Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003; Herendeen et al., 2003a), indicate that the two genera in the Parkieae, Parkia and Pentaclethra, are not sister taxa (Fig. 24). Pentaclethra is nested within Mimoseae in Luckow et al. (2000), but is either sister to caesalpinioid taxa in Bruneau et al. (2001) and Herendeen et al. (2003a), or part of a basal polytomy with Mimoseae and caesalpinioid taxa (Luckow et al., 2003). Both Parkia and Pentaclethra are included in the tribe Mimoseae pending additional data and tribal recircumscription.

    Recent work (Luckow et al., submitted a) also indicates that the monospecific tribe Mimozygantheae should be subsumed in the Mimoseae near Piptadeniopsis and Prosopidastrum, currently in the Prosopis group. Otherwise, the informal groups within the Mimoseae recognised by Lewis & Elias (1981) are relatively well-supported by current phylogenies and only a few departures have been made from their system. Where relationships are either poorly supported or unresolved, the classification of Lewis & Elias (1981) is retained. The Xylia group is dismantled and the Adenanthera group recircumscribed to include Calpocalyx and Xylia . Desmanthus has been removed from the Dichrostachys group, as has Neptunia, in agreement with recent molecular and morphological phylogenetic studies (Harris et al., 1994; Hughes, 1998; Luckow, 1995, 1997). A new group is erected to accommodate Piptadeniastrum which is well separated from Newtonia in the most recent phylogeny (Luckow et al., 2000; 2003), and another to accommodate Cylicodiscus, which is more closely related to the clade containing the Prosopis, Leucaena, Dichrostachys, and Piptadenia groups than it is to the Newtonia group. Neptunia is well supported as sister to Prosopidastrum in recent analyses (Luckow et al., 2003) and is included in the Prosopis group here. Relationships of genera in the Prosopis group are not resolved, but the group is retained here as there is no evidence that it is not monophyletic. Genera newly described since 1981 include Alantsilodendron, Calliandropsis, Kanaloa, and Lemurodendron. Alantsilodendron and Calliandropsis are placed in the Dichrostachys group, and Kanaloa in the Leucaena group based on phylogenetic analyses (Hughes, 1998; Luckow, 1997; Luckow et al., 2000). Lemurodendron is tentatively included in the Newtonia group as suggested by Villiers & Guinet (1989). As treated here the Mimoseae comprises 40 genera and from (859)– 869–(879) species.

    Of the three sections in Parkia only section Parkia is pantropical, the other two being restricted to the Neotropics. All recent phylogenetic analyses indicate that Parkia is most closely related to members of the Piptadenia group, and is not a basally branching genus in the Mimosoideae
    Habit
    Trees
    Ecology
    Tropical lowland rain forest (riparian, swamp and non-inundated), hill forest, seasonally dry forest, woodland (cerrado), wooded grassland and coastal dune forest (restinga)
    Distribution
    pantropical, but with three disjunct centres of diversity in S America, Africa-Madagascar and the Indopacific region; 18 spp. centred in Amazonia (but extending from Honduras in the north to SE coastal Brazil in the south); 3 spp. in WC to SE Africa and 1 sp. in Madagascar; c. 12 spp. in Asia from NE India (1 sp.), Indo-China and China (1 sp.), Malesia (c. 5 spp., some extending to Indo-China), Papuasia (1 sp.), Micronesia (2 spp.) and Fiji (1 sp.); 1 sp. widespread in SE Asia
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, J.P.M. Brenan. Flora Zambesiaca 3:1. 1970

    Habit
    Trees without spines or prickles.
    Leaves
    Leaves 2-pinnate; leaflets ± numerous; petiole usually glandular on its upper side.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence capitate, shortly claviform (with a globose apical part abruptly narrowed into a ± short cylindric neck) or (but not in the African species) globose or constricted in the middle; heads stalked, solitary or paniculate.
    Flowers
    Flowers in upper part of heads hermaphrodite, in lower part male or neuter.
    Calyx
    Calyx infundibuliform or long-tubular, gamosepalous, with 4-5 imbricate segments, 2 larger and 2-3 smaller, the mouth of the calyx being thus irregular.
    Corolla
    Corolla with 5 petals, which are free or ± united, not much exceeding the calyx.
    Stamens
    Stamens 10, all fertile, their filaments connate below into a tube, to which the petals may be adnate; anthers eglandular.
    Ovary
    Ovary usually stipitate.
    Fruits
    Pods oblong to linear, straight or curved, dehiscent or not, usually ± thick and often woody, or somewhat fleshy when living.
    Seeds
    Seeds ellipsoid to ellipsoid-oblong, ± compressed or flattened.
    Roots
    Root-nodules not yet recorded.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Parkia speciosa Hassk. is used as human food in SE Asia; mature and slightly immature green seeds are eaten as a vegetable (petai, sataw bean, chou dou) , sold fresh as bunches of strap-shaped pods in markets and as pods or loose seeds, eaten fresh or tinned, from supermarkets; seeds are also fermented and the pulpy endocarp makes a refreshing drink; other species are used extensively as food in W Africa (e.g., P. biglobosa (Jacq.) G.Don, or néré, African locust bean ); also used as cattle fodder, cordage, shade trees, medicine and the timber in plywood manufacture, construction, utensils and as firewood

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Fiji, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mozambique, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Panamá, Peru, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    China South-Central, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Trinidad-Tobago

    Parkia R.Br. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Feb 25, 1980 Burchell [9863], Brazil K000849448
    Plowman, T. [9693], Pará K000849446
    Folli, D.A. [1428], Espírito Santo K000849444
    Folli, D.A. [1428], Espírito Santo K000849445
    Santos, M.R. [71], Amazonas K000849442
    Hopkins, H.C. [235], Amazonas K000849447
    Constantino, D. [1630], Brazil K000849441
    Riera, B. [1885], French Guiana K000849443

    First published in Narr. Travels Africa: 234 (1826)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 323.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Denham & Clapperton, Trav., app.: 234 (1826).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in Denh. & Clapp., Trav., app.: 234 (1826)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0